Hypersensitivity to brivaracetam or any of the inactive ingredients in BRIVIACT (bronchospasm and angioedema have occurred) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), including BRIVIACT, increase the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior in patients taking these drugs for any indication. Patients treated with any AED for any indication should be monitored for the emergence or worsening of depression, suicidal thoughts or behavior, and/or any unusual changes in mood or behavior.
Pooled analyses of 199 placebo-controlled clinical trials (mono- and adjunctive therapy) of 11 different AEDs showed that patients randomized to one of the AEDs had approximately twice the risk (adjusted Relative Risk 1.8, 95% CI:1.2, 2.7) of suicidal thinking or behavior compared to patients randomized to placebo. In these trials, which had a median treatment duration of 12 weeks, the estimated incidence rate of suicidal behavior or ideation among 27,863 AED-treated patients was 0.43%, compared to 0.24% among 16,029 placebo-treated patients, representing an increase of approximately one case of suicidal thinking or behavior for every 530 patients treated. There were four suicides in drug-treated patients in the trials and none in placebo-treated patients, but the number is too small to allow any conclusion about drug effect on suicide.
The increased risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior with AEDs was observed as early as one week after starting drug treatment with AEDs and persisted for the duration of treatment assessed. Because most trials included in the analysis did not extend beyond 24 weeks, the risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior beyond 24 weeks could not be assessed.
The risk of suicidal thoughts or behavior was generally consistent among drugs in the data analyzed. The finding of increased risk with AEDs of varying mechanisms of action and across a range of indications suggests that the risk applies to all AEDs used for any indication. The risk did not vary substantially by age (5-100 years) in the clinical trials analyzed. Table 3 shows absolute and relative risk by indication for all evaluated AEDs.
|Indication||Placebo Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients||Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients||Relative Risk: Incidence of Events in Drug Patients/Incidence in Placebo Patients||Risk Difference: Additional Drug Patients with Events Per 1000 Patients|
The relative risk for suicidal thoughts or behavior was higher in clinical trials in patients with epilepsy than in clinical trials in patients with psychiatric or other conditions, but the absolute risk differences were similar for the epilepsy and psychiatric indications.
Anyone considering prescribing BRIVIACT or any other AED must balance the risk of suicidal thoughts or behaviors with the risk of untreated illness. Epilepsy and many other illnesses for which AEDs are prescribed are themselves associated with morbidity and mortality and an increased risk of suicidal thoughts and behavior. Should suicidal thoughts and behavior emerge during treatment, consider whether the emergence of these symptoms in any given patient may be related to the illness being treated.
BRIVIACT causes somnolence, fatigue, dizziness, and disturbance in coordination. Patients should be monitored for these signs and symptoms and advised not to drive or operate machinery until they have gained sufficient experience on BRIVIACT to gauge whether it adversely affects their ability to drive or operate machinery.
Somnolence and Fatigue
BRIVIACT causes dose-dependent increases in somnolence and fatigue-related adverse reactions (fatigue, asthenia, malaise, hypersomnia, sedation, and lethargy) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In the Phase 3 controlled adjunctive epilepsy trials, these events were reported in 25% of patients randomized to receive BRIVIACT at least 50 mg/day (20% at 50 mg/day, 26% at 100 mg/day, and 27% at 200 mg/day) compared to 14% of patients who received placebo. The risk is greatest early in treatment but can occur at any time.
Dizziness and Disturbance in Gait and Coordination
BRIVIACT causes adverse reactions related to dizziness and disturbance in gait and coordination (dizziness, vertigo, balance disorder, ataxia, nystagmus, gait disturbance, and abnormal coordination) [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)]. In the Phase 3 controlled adjunctive epilepsy trials, these events were reported in 16% of patients randomized to receive BRIVIACT at least 50 mg/day compared to 10% of patients who received placebo. The risk is greatest early in treatment but can occur at any time.
BRIVIACT causes psychiatric adverse reactions. In the Phase 3 controlled adjunctive epilepsy trials, psychiatric adverse reactions were reported in approximately 13% of patients who received BRIVIACT (at least 50 mg/day) compared to 8% of patients who received placebo. Psychiatric events included both non-psychotic symptoms (irritability, anxiety, nervousness, aggression, belligerence, anger, agitation, restlessness, depression, depressed mood, tearfulness, apathy, altered mood, mood swings, affect lability, psychomotor hyperactivity, abnormal behavior, and adjustment disorder) and psychotic symptoms (psychotic disorder along with hallucination, paranoia, acute psychosis, and psychotic behavior). A total of 1.7% of adult patients treated with BRIVIACT discontinued treatment because of psychiatric reactions compared to 1.3% of patients who received placebo.
Psychiatric adverse reactions were also observed in open-label pediatric trials and were generally similar to those observed in adults [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
BRIVIACT can cause hypersensitivity reactions. Bronchospasm and angioedema have been reported in patients taking BRIVIACT. If a patient develops hypersensitivity reactions after treatment with BRIVIACT, the drug should be discontinued. BRIVIACT is contraindicated in patients with a prior hypersensitivity reaction to brivaracetam or any of the inactive ingredients [see Contraindications (4)].
As with most antiepileptic drugs, BRIVIACT should generally be withdrawn gradually because of the risk of increased seizure frequency and status epilepticus [see Dosage and Administration (2.4) and Clinical Studies (14)]. But if withdrawal is needed because of a serious adverse event, rapid discontinuation can be considered.
The following serious adverse reactions are described elsewhere in labeling:
- Suicidal Behavior and Ideation [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Neurological Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
- Psychiatric Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Hypersensitivity: Bronchospasm and Angioedema [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Withdrawal of Antiepileptic Drugs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
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