BUDESONIDE (ENTERIC COATED) (Page 6 of 8)

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

Carcinogenicity studies with budesonide were conducted in rats and mice. In a two-year study in Sprague-Dawley rats, budesonide caused a statistically significant increase in the incidence of gliomas in male rats at an oral dose of 50 mcg/kg (approximately 0.05 times the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area basis). In addition, there were increased incidences of primary hepatocellular tumors in male rats at 25 mcg/kg (approximately 0.023 times the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area basis) and above. No tumorigenicity was seen in female rats at oral doses up to 50 mcg/kg (approximately 0.05 times the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area basis). In an additional two-year study in male Sprague-Dawley rats, budesonide caused no gliomas at an oral dose of 50 mcg/kg (approximately 0.05 times the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area basis). However, it caused a statistically significant increase in the incidence of hepatocellular tumors at an oral dose of 50 mcg/kg (approximately 0.05 times the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area basis). The concurrent reference corticosteroids (prednisolone and triamcinolone acetonide) showed similar findings. In a 91-week study in mice, budesonide caused no treatment-related carcinogenicity at oral doses up to 200 mcg/kg (approximately 0.1 times the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area basis).

Budesonide was not genotoxic in the Ames test, the mouse lymphoma cell forward gene mutation (TK+/-) test, the human lymphocyte chromosome aberration test, the Drosophila melanogaster sex-linked recessive lethality test, the rat hepatocyte UDS test and the mouse micronucleus test.

In rats, budesonide had no effect on fertility at subcutaneous doses up to 80 mcg/kg (approximately 0.07 times the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area basis). However, it caused a decrease in prenatal viability and viability in pups at birth and during lactation, along with a decrease in maternal body-weight gain, at subcutaneous doses of 20 mcg/kg (approximately 0.02 times the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area basis) and above. No such effects were noted at 5 mcg/kg (approximately 0.005 times the maximum recommended human dose on a body surface area basis).

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

14.1 Treatment of Mild to Moderate Active Crohn’s Disease

Adults

The efficacy of budesonide capsules (enteric coated) were evaluated in 994 patients with mild to moderate active Crohn’s disease of the ileum and/or ascending colon in 5 randomized and double- blind studies of 8 weeks duration. The study patients ranged in age from 17 to 85 (mean 35), 40% were male and 97% were white. The Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI) was the main clinical assessment used for determining efficacy in these 5 studies. 1 The CDAI is a validated index based on subjective aspects rated by the patient (frequency of liquid or very soft stools, abdominal pain rating and general well-being) and objective observations (number of extraintestinal symptoms, need for antidiarrheal drugs, presence of abdominal mass, body weight and hematocrit). Clinical improvement, defined as a CDAI score of less than or equal to 150 assessed after 8 weeks of treatment, was the primary efficacy variable in these 5 comparative efficacy studies of budesonide capsules (enteric coated). Safety assessments in these studies included monitoring of adverse reactions. A checklist of potential symptoms of hypercorticism was used.

One study (Study 1) compared the efficacy of budesonide capsules (enteric coated) 9 mg daily in the morning to a comparator. At baseline, the median CDAI was 272. Budesonide capsules (enteric coated) 9 mg daily resulted in a significantly higher clinical improvement rate at Week 8 than the comparator. See Table 5.

Table 5: Clinical Improvement Rates (CDAI less than or equal to 150) After 8 weeks of Treatment
Clinical Budesonide Capsules (enteric coated) Budesonide Capsules (enteric coated) Placebo Prednisolone
Study 9 mg Daily 4.5 mg Twice Daily Comparator *
*
This drug is not approved for the treatment of Crohn’s disease in the United States
p=0.0004 compared to comparator.
p=0.001 compared to placebo.
1 62/91 (69%) 37/83 (45%)
2 31/61 (51%) 13/64 (20%)
3 38/79 (48%) 41/78 (53%) 13/40 (33%)
4 35/58 (60%) 25/60 (42%) 35/58 (60%)
5 45/86 (52%) 56/85 (65%)

Two placebo-controlled clinical trials (Studies 2 and 3) were conducted. Study 2 involved 258 patients and tested the effects of graded doses of budesonide capsules (enteric coated) (1.5 mg twice daily, 4.5 mg twice daily, or 7.5 mg twice daily) versus placebo. At baseline, the median CDAI was 290. The 1.5 mg twice daily arm (data not shown) could not be differentiated from placebo. The 4.5 mg twice daily arm was statistically different from placebo (Table 5), while no additional benefit was seen when the daily budesonide capsules (enteric coated) dose was increased to 15 mg per day (data not shown). Study 3 was a 3-armed parallel group study. The groups were treated with budesonide capsules (enteric coated) 9 mg once daily, budesonide capsules (enteric coated) 4.5 mg twice daily and placebo for 8 weeks, followed by a 2-week double-blind taper phase. The median CDAI at baseline was 263. Neither 9 mg daily nor 4.5 mg twice daily budesonide capsules (enteric coated) dose levels were statistically different from placebo (Table 5). The recommended dosage of budesonide capsules (enteric coated) for the treatment of mild to moderate active Crohn’s disease involving the ileum and/or the ascending colon in adults is 9 mg once daily in the morning for up to 8 weeks [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)] .

Two clinical trials (Studies 4 and 5) compared budesonide capsules (enteric coated) with oral prednisolone (initial dose 40 mg per day). Study 4 was a 3-armed parallel group study. The groups were treated with budesonide capsules (enteric coated) 9 mg once daily, budesonide capsules (enteric coated) 4.5 mg twice daily and prednisolone 40 mg (tapered dose) for 8 weeks, followed by a 4-week double blind taper phase. At baseline, the median CDAI was 277. Equal clinical improvement rates (60%) were seen in the budesonide capsules (enteric coated) 9 mg daily and the prednisolone groups in Study 4. In Study 5, 13% fewer patients in the budesonide capsules (enteric coated) group experienced clinical improvement than in the prednisolone group (no statistical difference) (Table 5).

The proportion of patients with normal plasma cortisol values (greater than 150 nmol/L) was significantly higher in the budesonide capsules (enteric coated) groups in both trials (60 to 66%) than in the prednisolone groups (26 to 28%) at Week 8.

Pediatrics (8 to 17 Years of Age)

The effectiveness of budesonide capsules (enteric coated), in pediatric patients aged 8 to 17 years, who weigh more than 25 kg with mild to moderate active Crohn’s disease (defined as Crohn’s Disease Activity Index (CDAI) ≥ 200) involving the ileum and/or the ascending colon, was assessed in one randomized, double-blind, active control study. This study compared budesonide capsules (enteric coated) 9 mg once daily, with prednisolone, administered at tapering doses starting from 1 mg/kg. Twenty-two (22) patients were treated with budesonide capsules (enteric coated) and 24 patients were treated with prednisolone. After 8 weeks of treatment, 55% (95% CI: 32%, 77%) of patients treated with budesonide capsules (enteric coated) reached the endpoint (CDAI ≤150), as compared to 68% (95% CI: 47%, 89%) of patients treated with prednisolone. The average number of liquid or very soft stools per day (assessed over 7 days) decreased from 1.49 at baseline to 0.96 after treatment with budesonide capsules (enteric coated) and 2.00 at baseline to 0.52 after treatment with prednisolone. The average daily abdominal pain rating (where 0=none, 1=mild, 2=moderate, and 3=severe) decreased from 1.49 at baseline to 0.54 after treatment with budesonide capsules (enteric coated) and 1.64 at baseline to 0.38 after 8 weeks of treatment with prednisolone.

Use of budesonide capsules (enteric coated) in this age group is supported by evidence from adequate and well- controlled studies of budesonide capsules (enteric coated) in adults, and by safety and pharmacokinetic studies performed in pediatric patients.

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