Patients 65 years and over, particularly those with hypertension, may be at increased risk for developing hypotension while undergoing anesthesia with Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection.
In clinical studies of bupivacaine, elderly patients reached the maximal spread of analgesia and maximal motor blockade more rapidly than younger adult patients.
Differences in various pharmacokinetic parameters have been observed between elderly and younger adult patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
This product is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with impaired renal function. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor renal function. Elderly patients may require lower doses of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection.
Amide-type local anesthetics, such as bupivacaine, are metabolized by the liver. Patients with severe hepatic impairment, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at a greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations, and potentially local anesthetic systemic toxicity. Therefore, consider reduced dosing and increased monitoring for local anesthetic systemic toxicity in patients with moderate to severe hepatic impairment treated with Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection, especially with repeat doses [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
Bupivacaine is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions to this drug may be greater in patients with renal impairment. This should be considered when selecting the Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection dosage [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Acute emergencies from use of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection are generally related to high plasma levels encountered during therapeutic use or to unintended intrathecal injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.9), Adverse Reactions (6)].
If not treated immediately, convulsions with simultaneous hypoxia, hypercarbia, and acidosis plus myocardial depression from the direct effects of bupivacaine may result in cardiac arrhythmias, bradycardia, asystole, ventricular fibrillation, or cardiac arrest. Respiratory abnormalities, including apnea, may occur.
Hypoventilation or apnea due to unintentional intrathecal injection of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection may produce these same signs and also lead to cardiac arrest if ventilatory support is not instituted. If cardiac arrest should occur, successful outcome may require prolonged resuscitative efforts.
The first step in the management of systemic toxic reactions, as well as hypoventilation or apnea due to unintentional intrathecal injection of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection, consists of immediate attention to the establishment and maintenance of a patent airway and effective assisted or controlled ventilation with 100% oxygen with a delivery system capable of permitting immediate positive airway pressure by mask. Endotracheal intubation, using drugs and techniques familiar to the clinician, may be indicated after initial administration of oxygen by mask if difficulty is encountered in the maintenance of a patent airway, or if prolonged ventilatory support (assisted or controlled) is indicated.
If necessary, use drugs to manage the convulsions. A bolus intravenous dose of a benzodiazepine will counteract CNS stimulation related to Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection. Immediately after the institution of ventilatory measures, evaluate the adequacy of the circulation. Supportive treatment of circulatory depression may require Advance Cardiac Life Support measures.
Bupivacaine hydrochloride injection, USP contains bupivacaine hydrochloride, an amide local anesthetic, as the active pharmaceutical ingredient. The route of administration for Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection is by injection, for infiltration, perineural, caudal, epidural, or retrobulbar use. Multiple-dose vials contain methylparaben [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].
Bupivacaine hydrochloride is 2-piperidinecarboxamide, 1-butyl-N -(2,6-dimethylphenyl)-, monohydrochloride, monohydrate. It is a white crystalline powder that is freely soluble in 95 percent ethanol, soluble in water, and slightly soluble in chloroform or acetone. It has the following structural formula:
Bupivacaine hydrochloride injection, USP is a clear and colorless sterile isotonic solution. Each mL contains 2.5 mg or 5 mg of bupivacaine hydrochloride (equivalent to 2.22 mg or 4.44 mg of bupivacaine, respectively), sodium chloride for isotonicity, sodium hydroxide or hydrochloric acid to adjust the pH between 4 and 6.5, in water for injection.
For the Multiple-dose vials, each mL also contains 1 mg methylparaben as preservative.
Bupivacaine blocks the generation and the conduction of nerve impulses, presumably by increasing the threshold for electrical excitation in the nerve, by slowing the propagation of the nerve impulse, and by reducing the rate of rise of the action potential. In general, the progression of anesthesia is related to the diameter, myelination, and conduction velocity of affected nerve fibers. Clinically, the order of loss of nerve function is as follows: (1) pain, (2) temperature, (3) touch, (4) proprioception, and (5) skeletal muscle tone.
Epinephrine is a vasoconstrictor added to bupivacaine to slow absorption into the general circulation and thus prolong maintenance of an active tissue concentration.
Systemic absorption of bupivacaine produces effects on the cardiovascular system and CNS. At blood concentrations achieved with normal therapeutic doses, changes in cardiac conduction, excitability, refractoriness, contractility, and peripheral vascular resistance are minimal. However, toxic blood concentrations depress cardiac conduction and excitability, which may lead to atrioventricular block, ventricular arrhythmias, and cardiac arrest, sometimes resulting in fatalities. In addition, myocardial contractility is depressed and peripheral vasodilation occurs, leading to decreased cardiac output and arterial blood pressure. These cardiovascular changes are more likely to occur after unintended intravascular injection of bupivacaine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)].
Following systemic absorption, bupivacaine can produce CNS stimulation, CNS depression, or both. Apparent central stimulation is manifested as restlessness, tremors, and shivering, progressing to convulsions, followed by CNS depression and coma progressing ultimately to respiratory arrest. However, bupivacaine has a primary depressant effect on the medulla and on higher centers. The depressed stage may occur without a prior excited state.
The duration of local anesthesia after administration of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection is longer than that observed after administration of other commonly used short-acting local anesthetics. There appears to be period of analgesia that persists after the resolution of the block and return of sensation.
The onset of action following dental injections is usually 2 to 10 minutes and may last up to 7 hours.
Systemic plasma levels of bupivacaine following administration of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride injection do not correlate with local efficacy.
The rate of systemic absorption of bupivacaine is dependent upon the total dose and concentration of drug administered, the route of administration, the vascularity of the administration site, and the presence or absence of epinephrine in the anesthetic solution. A dilute concentration of epinephrine (1:200,000) usually reduces the rate of absorption and peak plasma concentration of bupivacaine, permitting the use of moderately larger total doses and sometimes prolonging the duration of action [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
After injection of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride for caudal, epidural, or peripheral nerve block, peak levels of bupivacaine in the blood are reached in 30 to 45 minutes, followed by a decline to insignificant levels during the next three to six hours.
Bupivacaine appears to cross the placenta by passive diffusion. The rate and degree of diffusion is governed by (1) the degree of plasma protein binding, (2) the degree of ionization, and (3) the degree of lipid solubility. Fetal/ maternal ratios of bupivacaine appear to be inversely related to the degree of plasma protein binding, because only the free, unbound drug is available for placental transfer. Bupivacaine with a high protein binding capacity (95%) has a low fetal/maternal ratio (0.2 to 0.4). The extent of placental transfer is also determined by the degree of ionization and lipid solubility of the drug. Lipid soluble, nonionized drugs readily enter the fetal blood from the maternal circulation.
Depending upon the route of administration, bupivacaine is distributed to some extent to all body tissues, with high concentrations found in highly perfused organs such as the liver, lungs, heart, and brain.
Pharmacokinetic studies on the plasma profile of bupivacaine after direct intravenous injection (Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection is not approved for intravenous use) suggest a three-compartment open model. The first compartment is represented by the rapid intravascular distribution of the drug. The second compartment represents the equilibration of the drug throughout the highly perfused organs such as the brain, myocardium, lungs, kidneys, and liver. The third compartment represents an equilibration of the drug with poorly perfused tissues, such as muscle and fat.
The half-life of bupivacaine in adults is 2.7 hours.
Amide-type local anesthetics such as bupivacaine are metabolized primarily in the liver via conjugation with glucuronic acid. Pipecoloxylidine is the major metabolite of bupivacaine. The elimination of drug from tissue distribution depends largely upon the availability of binding sites in the circulation to carry it to the liver where it is metabolized.
The kidney is the main excretory organ for most local anesthetics and their metabolites. Urinary excretion is affected by urinary perfusion and factors affecting urinary pH. Only 6% of bupivacaine is excreted unchanged in the urine.
Elderly patients exhibited higher peak plasma concentrations than younger patients following administration of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection The total plasma clearance was decreased in these patients [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].
Patients with Hepatic Impairment
Various pharmacokinetic parameters of the local anesthetics can be significantly altered by the presence of hepatic disease. Patients with hepatic disease, especially those with severe hepatic disease, may be more susceptible to the potential toxicities of the amide-type local anesthetics [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6)].
Patients with Renal Impairment
Various pharmacokinetic parameters of the local anesthetics can be significantly altered by the presence of renal disease, factors affecting urinary pH, and renal blood flow [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5, 8.7)].
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