Bupivacaine Hydrochloride (Page 2 of 10)

2.3 Use in Epidural Anesthesia

During the administration of epidural anesthesia, it is recommended that a test dose of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection without antimicrobial preservative (0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine) be administered initially and the effects monitored before the full dose is given. When using a “continuous” catheter technique, test doses should be given prior to both the initial and all supplemental doses, because a catheter in the epidural space can migrate into a blood vessel or through the dura [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)].

During epidural administration, administer Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, 0.5% (5 mg/mL) and Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection 0.75% (7.5 mg/mL) solutions in incremental doses of 3 mL to 5 mL with sufficient time between doses to detect toxic manifestations of unintentional intravascular or intrathecal injection. Administer injections slowly, with frequent aspirations before and during the injection to avoid intravascular injection. Perform syringe aspirations before and during each supplemental injection in continuous (intermittent) catheter techniques. In obstetrics, use ONLY the 0.5% (5 mg/mL) and 0.25% (2.5 mg/mL) concentrations of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]; incremental doses of 3 mL to 5 mL of the 0.5% (5 mg/mL) solution not exceeding 50 mg to 100 mg at any dosing interval are recommended. Repeat doses should be preceded by a test dose containing epinephrine if not clinically contraindicated. Use only the single-dose vials for caudal or epidural anesthesia; avoid use of the multiple-dose vials for these procedures, which contain a preservative [see Dosage and Administration (2.1, 2.4), Warnings and Precautions (5.4, 5.9)].

2.4 Test Dose for Caudal and Lumbar Epidural Blocks

Three mL of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection without antimicrobial preservative (0.5% bupivacaine with 1:200,000 epinephrine) is recommended for use as a test dose prior to caudal and lumbar epidural blocks when clinical conditions permit. This test dose may serve as a warning of unintended intravascular or intrathecal injection. Closely monitor for early clinical signs of toxicity following each test dose [see Warnings and Precautions (5.9)]. Allot adequate time for onset of spinal block to detect possible intrathecal injection. An intravascular or intrathecal injection is still possible even if results of the test dose are negative. The test dose itself may produce a systemic toxic reaction, high spinal, or cardiovascular effects from the epinephrine [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.9), Overdosage (10)].

2.5 Use in Dentistry

Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection 0.5% (5 mg/mL) is recommended for infiltration and block injection in the maxillary and mandibular area when a longer duration of local anesthesia is desired, such as for procedures generally associated with significant postoperative pain. The average dose of 1.8 mL (9 mg) per injection site will usually suffice; an occasional second dose of 1.8 mL (9 mg) may be used if necessary to produce adequate anesthesia after allowing 2 to 10 minutes for block onset [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)]. Use the lowest effective dose and allow time between injections; it is recommended that the total dose for all injection sites, spread out over a single dental sitting, not exceed 90 mg for a healthy adult patient (ten 1.8 mL injections of 0.5% (5 mg/mL) Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection). Inject slowly and with frequent aspirations.

2.6 Use in Ophthalmic Surgery

When Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection 0.75% (7.5 mg/mL) is used for retrobulbar block, complete corneal anesthesia usually precedes onset of clinically acceptable external ocular muscle akinesia. Therefore, presence of akinesia rather than anesthesia alone should determine readiness of the patient for surgery [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection, USP is a clear, colorless solution available as:

  • 0.25% (25 mg/10 mL) (2.5 mg/mL) in single-dose teartop vials.
  • 0.25% (75 mg/30 mL) (2.5 mg/mL) in single-dose teartop vials.
  • 0.25% (125 mg/50 mL) (2.5 mg/mL) in multiple-dose fliptop vials.
  • 0.5% (50 mg/10 mL) (5 mg/mL) in single-dose teartop vials.
  • 0.5% (150 mg/30 mL) (5 mg/mL) in single-dose teartop vials.
  • 0.5% (250 mg/50 mL) (5 mg/mL) in multiple-dose fliptop vials.
  • 0.75% (75 mg/10 mL) (7.5 mg/mL) in single-dose teartop vials.
  • 0.75% (225 mg/30 mL) (7.5 mg/mL) in single-dose teartop vials.

Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection, USP is a clear, colorless solution available as:

  • 0.25% (25 mg/10 mL) (2.5 mg/mL) in single-dose teartop vials.
  • 0.25% (75 mg/30 mL) (2.5 mg/mL) in single-dose teartop vials.
  • 0.25% (125 mg/50 mL) (2.5 mg/mL) in multiple-dose fliptop vials.
  • 0.5% (50 mg/10 mL) (5 mg/mL) in single-dose teartop vials.
  • 0.5% (150 mg/30 mL) (5 mg/mL) in single-dose teartop vials.
  • 0.5% (250 mg/50 mL) (5 mg/mL) in multiple-dose fliptop vials.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection is contraindicated in:

  • obstetrical paracervical block anesthesia. Its use in this technique has resulted in fetal bradycardia and death.
  • intravenous regional anesthesia (Bier Block) [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].
  • patients with a known hypersensitivity to bupivacaine or to any local anesthetic agent of the amide-type or to other components of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection.

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Risk of Cardiac Arrest with Use of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection in Obstetrical Anesthesia

There have been reports of cardiac arrest with difficult resuscitation or death during use of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection for epidural anesthesia in obstetrical patients. In most cases, this has followed use of the 0.75% (7.5 mg/mL) concentration. Resuscitation has been difficult or impossible despite apparently adequate preparation and appropriate management. Cardiac arrest has occurred after convulsions resulting from systemic toxicity, presumably following unintentional intravascular injection. The 0.75% (7.5 mg/mL) concentration of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection is not recommended for obstetrical anesthesia and should be reserved for surgical procedures where a high degree of muscle relaxation and prolonged effect are necessary.

5.2 Dose-Related Toxicity

The safety and effectiveness of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Careful and constant monitoring of cardiovascular and respiratory (adequacy of ventilation) vital signs and the patient’s state of consciousness should be performed after injection of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection solutions.

Possible early warning signs of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity are restlessness, anxiety, incoherent speech, lightheadedness, numbness and tingling of the mouth and lips, metallic taste, tinnitus, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, twitching, CNS depression, or drowsiness. Delay in proper management of dose-related toxicity, underventilation from any cause, and/or altered sensitivity may lead to the development of acidosis, cardiac arrest, and, possibly, death.

During major regional nerve blocks, such as those of the brachial plexus or lower extremity, the patient should have an indwelling intravenous catheter to assure adequate intravenous access. Use the lowest dosage of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection that results in effective anesthesia to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Avoid rapid injection of a large volume of Bupivacaine. Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection solution and administer fractional (incremental) doses when feasible.

Injection of repeated doses of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection may cause significant increases in plasma levels with each repeated dose due to slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites, or to slow metabolic degradation. Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients and acutely ill patients should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical status.

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