BUPIVACAINE HYDROCHLORIDE (Page 5 of 8)
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Local Anesthetics
The toxic effects of local anesthetics are additive. If coadministration of other local anesthetics with Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection cannot be avoided, monitor patients for neurologic and cardiovascular effects related to local anesthetic systemic toxicity [see Dosage and Administration (2.1), Warnings and Precautions (5.2)].
7.2 Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitors and Tricyclic Antidepressants
The administration of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection to patients receiving monoamine oxidase inhibitors, or tricyclic antidepressants may produce severe, prolonged hypertension. Concurrent use of these agents should generally be avoided. In situations when concurrent therapy is necessary, careful monitoring of the patient’s hemodynamic status is essential [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
7.3 Ergot-Type Oxytocic Drugs
Concurrent administration of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection and ergot-type oxytocic drugs may cause severe, persistent hypertension or cerebrovascular accidents. Avoid use of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine concomitantly with ergot-type oxytocic drugs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
7.4 Nonselective Beta-Adrenergic Antagonists
Administration of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection (containing a vasoconstrictor) in patients receiving nonselective beta-adrenergic antagonists may cause severe hypertension and bradycardia. Concurrent use of these agents should generally be avoided. In situations when concurrent therapy is necessary, careful monitoring of the patient’s blood pressure and heart rate is essential [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].
7.5 Drugs Associated with Methemoglobinemia
Patients who are administered Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection are at increased risk of developing methemoglobinemia when concurrently exposed to the following drugs, which could include other local anesthetics [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
nitric oxide, nitroglycerin, nitroprusside, nitrous oxide
articaine, benzocaine, bupivacaine, lidocaine, mepivacaine, prilocaine, procaine, ropivacaine, tetracaine
cyclophosphamide, flutamide, hydroxyurea, ifosfamide, rasburicase
dapsone, nitrofurantoin, para-aminosalicylic acid, sulfonamides
phenobarbital, phenytoin, sodium valproate
acetaminophen, metoclopramide, quinine, sulfasalazine
7.6 Potent Inhalation Anesthetics
Serious dose-related cardiac arrhythmias may occur if preparations containing a vasoconstrictor such as epinephrine (e.g., Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection) are used in patients during or following the administration of potent inhalation anesthetics [see Warnings and Precautions (5.13)].
7.7 Phenothiazines and Butyrophenones
Phenothiazines and butyrophenones may reduce or reverse the pressor effect of epinephrine. Concurrent use of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection and these agents should generally be avoided. In situations when concurrent therapy is necessary, careful patient monitoring is essential.
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection is contraindicated for obstetrical paracervical block anesthesia. Its use in this technique has resulted in fetal bradycardia and death [see Contraindications (4), Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
There are no available data on use of Bupivacaine Hydrochloride Injection/Bupivacaine Hydrochloride and Epinephrine Injection in pregnant women to inform a drug-associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes.
In animal studies, embryo-fetal lethality was noted when bupivacaine was administered subcutaneously to pregnant rabbits during organogenesis at clinically relevant doses. Decreased pup survival was observed in a rat pre- and post-natal developmental study (dosing from implantation through weaning) at a dose level comparable to the daily maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) on a body surface area (BSA) basis. Based on animal data, advise pregnant women of the potential risks to a fetus (see Data).
Local anesthetics rapidly cross the placenta, and when used for epidural, caudal, or pudendal block anesthesia, can cause varying degrees of maternal, fetal, and neonatal toxicity [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. The incidence and degree of toxicity depend upon the procedure performed, the type, and amount of drug used, and the technique of drug administration. Adverse reactions in the parturient, fetus, and neonate involve alterations of the CNS, peripheral vascular tone, and cardiac function.
If this drug is used during pregnancy, or if the patient becomes pregnant while taking this drug, inform the patient of the potential hazard to the fetus. The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations are unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.
Maternal Adverse Reactions
Maternal hypotension has resulted from regional anesthesia. Local anesthetics produce vasodilation by blocking sympathetic nerves. The supine position is dangerous in pregnant women at term because of aortocaval compression by the gravid uterus. Therefore, during treatment of systemic toxicity, maternal hypotension or fetal bradycardia following regional block, the parturient should be maintained in the left lateral decubitus position if possible, or manual displacement of the uterus off the great vessels be accomplished. Elevating the patient’s legs will also help prevent decreases in blood pressure. The fetal heart rate also should be monitored continuously and electronic fetal monitoring is highly advisable.
Labor or Delivery
Epidural, caudal, or pudendal anesthesia may alter the forces of parturition through changes in uterine contractility or maternal expulsive efforts. Epidural anesthesia has been reported to prolong the second stage of labor by removing the parturient’s reflex urge to bear down or by interfering with motor function. The use of obstetrical anesthesia may increase the need for forceps assistance.
The use of some local anesthetic drug products during labor and delivery may be followed by diminished muscle strength and tone for the first day or two of life. This has not been reported with bupivacaine.
It is extremely important to avoid aortocaval compression by the gravid uterus during administration of regional block to parturients. To do this, the patient must be maintained in the left lateral decubitus position or a blanket roll or sandbag may be placed beneath the right hip and gravid uterus displaced to the left.
Bupivacaine hydrochloride produced developmental toxicity when administered subcutaneously to pregnant rats and rabbits at clinically relevant doses.
Bupivacaine hydrochloride was administered subcutaneously to rats at doses of 4.4, 13.3, & 40 mg/kg and to rabbits at doses of 1.3, 5.8, & 22.2 mg/kg during the period of organogenesis (implantation to closure of the hard palate). The high doses are comparable to the daily MRHD of 400 mg/day on a mg/m2 BSA basis. No embryo-fetal effects were observed in rats at the high dose which caused increased maternal lethality. An increase in embryo-fetal deaths was observed in rabbits at the high dose in the absence of maternal toxicity with the fetal No Observed Adverse Effect Level representing approximately 0.3 times the MRHD on a BSA basis.
In a rat pre- and post-natal developmental study (dosing from implantation through weaning) conducted at subcutaneous doses of 4.4, 13.3, & 40 mg/kg, decreased pup survival was observed at the high dose. The high dose is comparable to the daily MRHD of 400 mg/day on a BSA basis.
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