Buprenorphine and Naloxone

BUPRENORPHINE AND NALOXONE- buprenorphine hydrochloride and naloxone hydrochloride dihydrate film
Mylan Pharmaceuticals Inc.

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film is indicated for treatment of opioid dependence. Buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film should be used as part of a complete treatment plan that includes counseling and psychosocial support.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Drug Addiction and Treatment Act

Under the Drug Addiction Treatment Act (DATA) codified at 21 U.S.C. 823(g), prescription use of this product in the treatment of opioid dependence is limited to healthcare providers who meet certain qualifying requirements, and who have notified the Secretary of Health and Human Services (HHS) of their intent to prescribe this product for the treatment of opioid dependence and have been assigned a unique identification number that must be included on every prescription.

2.2 Important Dosage and Administration Information

Buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film is administered sublingually or buccally as a single daily dose.

Medication should be prescribed in consideration of the frequency of visits. Provision of multiple refills is not advised early in treatment or without appropriate patient follow-up visits.

2.3 Induction

Prior to induction, consideration should be given to the type of opioid dependence (i.e., long- or short-acting opioid products), the time since last opioid use, and the degree or level of opioid dependence.

Patients Dependent on Heroin or Other Short-Acting Opioid Products

Patients dependent on heroin or other short-acting opioid products may be inducted with either buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film or with sublingual buprenorphine monotherapy. At treatment initiation, the first dose of buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film should be administered when objective signs of moderate opioid withdrawal appear, not less than six hours after the patient last used opioids.

It is recommended that an adequate treatment dose, titrated to clinical effectiveness, be achieved as rapidly as possible. In some studies, a too-gradual induction over several days led to a high rate of drop-out of buprenorphine patients during the induction period.

On Day 1, an induction dosage of up to 8 mg/2 mg buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film is recommended. Clinicians should start with an initial dose of 2 mg/0.5 mg or 4 mg/1 mg buprenorphine and naloxone and may titrate upwards in 2 or 4 mg increments of buprenorphine, at approximately 2-hour intervals, under supervision, to 8 mg/2 mg buprenorphine and naloxone based on the control of acute withdrawal symptoms.

On Day 2, a single daily dose of up to 16 mg/4 mg buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film is recommended.

Because the exposure to naloxone is somewhat higher after buccal than after sublingual administration, it is recommended that the sublingual site of administration be used during induction to minimize exposure to naloxone, to reduce the risk of precipitated withdrawal.

Patients Dependent on Methadone or Long-Acting Opioid Products

Patients dependent upon methadone or long-acting opioid products may be more susceptible to precipitated and prolonged withdrawal during induction than those on short-acting opioid products.

Buprenorphine and naloxone combination products have not been evaluated in adequate and well-controlled studies for induction in patients who are physically dependent on long-acting opioid products, and the naloxone in these combination products is absorbed in small amounts by the sublingual route and could cause worse precipitated and prolonged withdrawal. For this reason, buprenorphine monotherapy is recommended in patients taking long-acting opioids when used according to approved administration instructions. Following induction, the patient may then be transitioned to once-daily buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film.

2.4 Maintenance

For maintenance, buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film may be administered buccally or sublingually.
The dosage of buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film from Day 3 onwards should be progressively adjusted in increments/decrements of 2 mg/0.5 mg or 4 mg/1 mg buprenorphine and naloxone to a level that holds the patient in treatment and suppresses opioid withdrawal signs and symptoms.
After treatment induction and stabilization, the maintenance dose of buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film is generally in the range of 4 mg/1 mg buprenorphine and naloxone to 24 mg/6 mg buprenorphine and naloxone per day depending on the individual patient and clinical response. The recommended target dosage of buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film during maintenance is 16 mg/4 mg buprenorphine and naloxone/day as a single daily dose. Dosages higher than 24 mg/6 mg daily have not been demonstrated to provide a clinical advantage.
When determining the prescription quantity for unsupervised administration, consider the patient’s level of stability, the security of his or her home situation, and other factors likely to affect the ability to manage supplies of take-home medication.
There is no maximum recommended duration of maintenance treatment. Patients may require treatment indefinitely and should continue for as long as patients are benefiting and the use of buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film contributes to the intended treatment goals.

2.5 Method of Administration

Buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film must be administered whole. Do not cut, chew, or swallow buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film. Advise patients not to eat or drink anything until the film is completely dissolved.

Sublingual Administration

Place one film under the tongue, close to the base on the left or right side. If an additional film is necessary to achieve the prescribed dose, place an additional film sublingually on the opposite side from the first film. Place the film in a manner to minimize overlapping as much as possible. The film must be kept under the tongue until the film is completely dissolved. If a third film is necessary to achieve the prescribed dose, place it under the tongue on either side after the first 2 films have dissolved.

Buccal Administration

Place one film on the inside of the right or left cheek. If an additional film is necessary to achieve the prescribed dose, place an additional film on the inside of the opposite cheek. The film must be kept on the inside of the cheek until the film is completely dissolved. If a third film is necessary to achieve the prescribed dose, place it on the inside of the right or left cheek after the first two films have dissolved.

Buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film should NOT be moved after placement.

To ensure consistency in bioavailability, patients should follow the same manner of dosing with continued use of the product. Proper administration technique should be demonstrated to the patient.

2.6 Clinical Supervision

Treatment should be initiated with supervised administration, progressing to unsupervised administration as the patient’s clinical stability permits. Buprenorphine and naloxone sublingual film is subject to diversion and abuse. When determining the prescription quantity for unsupervised administration, consider the patient’s level of stability, the security of his or her home situation, and other factors likely to affect the ability to manage supplies of take-home medication.

Ideally patients should be seen at reasonable intervals (e.g., at least weekly during the first month of treatment) based upon the individual circumstances of the patient. Medication should be prescribed in consideration of the frequency of visits. Provision of multiple refills is not advised early in treatment or without appropriate patient follow-up visits. Periodic assessment is necessary to determine compliance with the dosing regimen, effectiveness of the treatment plan, and overall patient progress.

Once a stable dosage has been achieved and patient assessment (e.g., urine drug screening) does not indicate illicit drug use, less frequent follow-up visits may be appropriate. A once-monthly visit schedule may be reasonable for patients on a stable dosage of medication who are making progress toward their treatment objectives. Continuation or modification of pharmacotherapy should be based on the healthcare provider’s evaluation of treatment outcomes and objectives such as:

1.
Absence of medication toxicity.
2.
Absence of medical or behavioral adverse effects.
3.
Responsible handling of medications by the patient.
4.
Patient’s compliance with all elements of the treatment plan (including recovery-oriented activities, psychotherapy, and/or other psychosocial modalities).
5.
Abstinence from illicit drug use (including problematic alcohol and/or benzodiazepine use).

If treatment goals are not being achieved, the healthcare provider should re-evaluate the appropriateness of continuing the current treatment.

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