The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
Chills, facial edema, edema, peripheral edema, musculoskeletal chest pain, photosensitivity, and malaise.
Postural hypotension, hypertension, stroke, vasodilation, syncope, complete atrioventricular block, extrasystoles, myocardial infarction, phlebitis, and pulmonary embolism.
Abnormal liver function, bruxism, gastric reflux, gingivitis, glossitis, increased salivation, jaundice, mouth ulcers, stomatitis, thirst, edema of tongue, colitis, esophagitis, gastrointestinal hemorrhage, gum hemorrhage, hepatitis, intestinal perforation, liver damage, pancreatitis, and stomach ulcer.
Hyperglycemia, hypoglycemia, and syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone secretion.
Hemic and Lymphatic
Ecchymosis, anemia, leukocytosis, leukopenia, lymphadenopathy, pancytopenia, and thrombocytopenia. Altered PT and/or INR, associated with hemorrhagic or thrombotic complications, were observed when bupropion was coadministered with warfarin.
Metabolic and Nutritional
Leg cramps, fever/rhabdomyolysis, and muscle weakness.
Abnormal coordination, depersonalization, emotional lability, hyperkinesia, hypertonia, hypesthesia, vertigo, amnesia, ataxia, derealization, abnormal electroencephalogram (EEG), aggression, akinesia, aphasia, coma, dysarthria, dyskinesia, dystonia, euphoria, extrapyramidal syndrome, hypokinesia, increased libido, neuralgia, neuropathy, paranoid ideation, restlessness, suicide attempt, and unmasking tardive dyskinesia.
Bronchospasm and pneumonia.
Maculopapular rash, alopecia, angioedema, exfoliative dermatitis, and hirsutism.
Accommodation abnormality, dry eye, deafness, increased intraocular pressure, angle-closure glaucoma, and mydriasis.
Impotence, polyuria, prostate disorder, abnormal ejaculation, cystitis, dyspareunia, dysuria, gynecomastia, menopause, painful erection, salpingitis, urinary incontinence, urinary retention, and vaginitis.
Bupropion is primarily metabolized to hydroxybupropion by CYP2B6. Therefore, the potential exists for drug interactions between bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) and drugs that are inhibitors or inducers of CYP2B6.
Inhibitors of CYP2B6
Ticlopidine and Clopidogrel: Concomitant treatment with these drugs can increase bupropion exposures but decrease hydroxybupropion exposure. Based on clinical response, dosage adjustment of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) may be necessary when coadministered with CYP2B6 inhibitors (e.g., ticlopidine or clopidogrel) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Inducers of CYP2B6
Ritonavir, Lopinavir, and Efavirenz: Concomitant treatment with these drugs can decrease bupropion and hydroxybupropion exposure. Dosage increase of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) may be necessary when coadministered with ritonavir, lopinavir, or efavirenz but should not exceed the maximum recommended dose [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Carbamazepine, Phenobarbital, Phenytoin: While not systemically studied, these drugs may induce metabolism of bupropion and may decrease bupropion exposure [see Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)]. If bupropion is used concomitantly with a CYP inducer, it may be necessary to increase the dose of bupropion, but the maximum recommended dose should not be exceeded.
Drugs Metabolized by CYP2D6
Bupropion and its metabolites (erythrohydrobupropion, threohydrobupropion, hydroxybupropion) are CYP2D6 inhibitors. Therefore, coadministration of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) with drugs that are metabolized by CYP2D6 can increase the exposures of drugs that are substrates of CYP2D6. Such drugs include certain antidepressants (e.g., venlafaxine, nortriptyline, imipramine, desipramine, paroxetine, fluoxetine, and sertraline), antipsychotics (e.g., haloperidol, risperidone, and thioridazine), beta-blockers (e.g., metoprolol), and Type 1C antiarrhythmics (e.g., propafenone, and flecainide). When used concomitantly with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL), it may be necessary to decrease the dose of these CYP2D6 substrates, particularly for drugs with a narrow therapeutic index.
Drugs that require metabolic activation by CYP2D6 to be effective (e.g., tamoxifen), theoretically could have reduced efficacy when administered concomitantly with inhibitors of CYP2D6 such as bupropion. Patients treated concomitantly with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) and such drugs may require increased doses of the drug [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Use extreme caution when coadministering bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) with other drugs that lower the seizure threshold (e.g., other bupropion products, antipsychotics, antidepressants, theophylline, or systemic corticosteroids). Use low initial doses of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) and increase the dose gradually [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)].
Bupropion, levodopa, and amantadine have dopamine agonist effects. CNS toxicity has been reported when bupropion was coadministered with levodopa or amantadine. Adverse reactions have included restlessness, agitation, tremor, ataxia, gait disturbance, vertigo, and dizziness. It is presumed that the toxicity results from cumulative dopamine agonist effects. Use caution when administering bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) concomitantly with these drugs.
In postmarketing experience, there have been rare reports of adverse neuropsychiatric events or reduced alcohol tolerance in patients who were drinking alcohol during treatment with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). The consumption of alcohol during treatment with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) should be minimized or avoided.
Bupropion inhibits the reuptake of dopamine and norepinephrine. Concomitant use of MAOIs and bupropion is contraindicated because there is an increased risk of hypertensive reactions if bupropion is used concomitantly with MAOIs. Studies in animals demonstrate that the acute toxicity of bupropion is enhanced by the MAO inhibitor phenelzine. At least 14 days should elapse between discontinuation of an MAOI intended to treat depression and initiation of treatment with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL). Conversely, at least 14 days should be allowed after stopping bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL) before starting an MAOI antidepressant [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.8, 2.9) and Contraindications (4)].
False-positive urine immunoassay screening tests for amphetamines have been reported in patients taking bupropion. This is due to lack of specificity of some screening tests. False-positive test results may result even following discontinuation of bupropion therapy. Confirmatory tests, such as gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, will distinguish bupropion from amphetamines.
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