BUPROPION HYDROCHLORIDE SR (SR)- bupropion hydrochloride tablet, film coated, extended release
Aidarex Pharmaceuticals LLC
Suicidality and Antidepressant Drugs
Use in Treating Psychiatric Disorders : Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide. Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality, or unusual changes in behavior. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) are not approved for use in pediatric patients. (See WARNINGS: Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk in Treating Psychiatric Disorders, PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients, and PRECAUTIONS: Pediatric Use.)
Use in Smoking Cessation Treatment : WELLBUTRIN® (bupropion hydrochloride tablets), bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR), and WELLBUTRIN XL® (Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (XL)) are not approved for smoking cessation treatment, but bupropion under the name ZYBAN® is approved for this use. Serious neuropsychiatric events, including but not limited to depression, suicidal ideation, suicide attempt, and completed suicide have been reported in patients taking bupropion for smoking cessation. Some cases may have been complicated by the symptoms of nicotine withdrawal in patients who stopped smoking. Depressed mood may be a symptom of nicotine withdrawal. Depression, rarely including suicidal ideation, has been reported in smokers undergoing a smoking cessation attempt without medication. However, some of these symptoms have occurred in patients taking bupropion who continued to smoke.
All patients being treated with bupropion for smoking cessation treatment should be observed for neuropsychiatric symptoms including changes in behavior, hostility, agitation, depressed mood, and suicide-related events, including ideation, behavior, and attempted suicide. These symptoms, as well as worsening of pre-existing psychiatric illness and completed suicide have been reported in some patients attempting to quit smoking while taking ZYBAN® in the postmarketing experience. When symptoms were reported, most were during treatment with ZYBAN® , but some were following discontinuation of treatment with ZYBAN®. These events have occurred in patients with and without pre-existing psychiatric disease; some have experienced worsening of their psychiatric illnesses. Patients with serious psychiatric illness such as schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and major depressive disorder did not participate in the premarketing studies of ZYBAN®.
Advise patients and caregivers that the patient using bupropion for smoking cessation should stop taking bupropion and contact a healthcare provider immediately if agitation, hostility, depressed mood, or changes in thinking or behavior that are not typical for the patient are observed, or if the patient develops suicidal ideation or suicidal behavior. In many postmarketing cases, resolution of symptoms after discontinuation of ZYBAN® was reported, although in some cases the symptoms persisted; therefore, ongoing monitoring and supportive care should be provided until symptoms resolve.
The risks of using bupropion for smoking cessation should be weighed against the benefits of its use. ZYBAN® has been demonstrated to increase the likelihood of abstinence from smoking for as long as 6 months compared to treatment with placebo. The health benefits of quitting smoking are immediate and substantial. (See WARNINGS: Neuropsychiatric Symptoms and Suicide Risk in Smoking Cessation Treatment and PRECAUTIONS: Information for Patients.)
Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR), an antidepressant of the aminoketone class, is chemically unrelated to tricyclic, tetracyclic, selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitor, or other known antidepressant agents. Its structure closely resembles that of diethylpropion; it is related to phenylethylamines. It is designated as (±)-1-(3-chlorophenyl)-2-[(1,1-dimethylethyl) amino]-1-propanone hydrochloride. The molecular weight is 276.2. The molecular formula is C13 H18 ClNO•HCl. Bupropion hydrochloride powder is white, crystalline, soluble in water, 0.1N HCl and in alcohol. It has a bitter taste and produces the sensation of local anesthesia on the oral mucosa. The structural formula is:
Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) are supplied for oral administration as 100-mg (blue), 150-mg (purple), and 200-mg (pink), film-coated, extended-release tablets. Each tablet contains the labeled amount of bupropion hydrochloride and the inactive ingredients: ammonium chloride, colloidal silicon dioxide, glyceryl behenate, hydroxy propyl cellulose, magnesium stearate, mannitol, microcrystalline cellulose, stearic acid, talc, titanium dioxide. In addition, the 100-mg tablet contains FD&C Blue No. 1 Lake, the 150-mg tablet contains FD&C Blue No. 2 Lake and FD&C Red No. 40 Lake, and the 200-mg tablet contains FD&C Red No. 40 Lake.
Bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets, USP (SR), 100 mg, 150 mg and 200 mg, meet USP Dissolution Test 2.
Bupropion is a relatively weak inhibitor of the neuronal uptake of norepinephrine and dopamine, and does not inhibit monoamine oxidase or the re-uptake of serotonin. While the mechanism of action of bupropion, as with other antidepressants, is unknown, it is presumed that this action is mediated by noradrenergic and/or dopaminergic mechanisms.
Bupropion is a racemic mixture. The pharmacologic activity and pharmacokinetics of the individual enantiomers have not been studied. The mean elimination half-life (±SD) of bupropion after chronic dosing is 21 (±9) hours, and steady-state plasma concentrations of bupropion are reached within 8 days. In a study comparing chronic dosing with bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) 150 mg twice daily to the immediate-release formulation of bupropion at 100 mg 3 times daily, peak plasma concentrations of bupropion at steady state for bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) were approximately 85% of those achieved with the immediate-release formulation. There was equivalence for bupropion AUCs, as well as equivalence for both peak plasma concentration and AUCs for all 3 of the detectable bupropion metabolites. Thus, at steady state, bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR), given twice daily, and the immediate-release formulation of bupropion, given 3 times daily, are essentially bioequivalent for both bupropion and the 3 quantitatively important metabolites.
Exposure Following oral administration of bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) to bupropion may be increased when bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) are taken with food. Three studies in healthy volunteers demonstrated, peak plasma concentrations (of bupropion are achieved within 3 hours. Food increased Cmax ) and AUC of bupropion increased by 11% to 35% when administered with food, while overall exposure (AUC) to bupropion increased by 16% to 19%. The food effect and 17%, respectively, indicating that there is not considered clinically significant and bupropion hydrochloride extended-release tablets (SR) can be taken with or without food effect.
In vitro tests show that bupropion is 84% bound to human plasma proteins at concentrations up to 200 mcg/mL. The extent of protein binding of the hydroxybupropion metabolite is similar to that for bupropion, whereas the extent of protein binding of the threohydrobupropion metabolite is about half that seen with bupropion.
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