5.13 Risks of Use in Patients with Increased Intracranial Pressure, Brain Tumors, Head Injury, or Impaired Consciousness
In patients who may be susceptible to the intracranial effects of CO2 retention (e.g., those with evidence of increased intracranial pressure or brain tumors), Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules may reduce respiratory drive, and the resultant CO2 retention can further increase intracranial pressure. Monitor such patients for signs of sedation and respiratory depression, particularly when initiating therapy with Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules.
Opioids may also obscure the clinical course in a patient with a head injury. Avoid the use of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules in patients with impaired consciousness or coma.
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules are contraindicated in patients with known or suspected gastrointestinal obstruction, including paralytic ileus.
The codeine in Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules may cause spasm of the sphincter of Oddi. Opioids may cause increases in serum amylase. Monitor patients with biliary tract disease, including acute pancreatitis for worsening symptoms.
The codeine in Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules may increase the frequency of seizures in patients with seizure disorders and may increase the risk of seizures occurring in other clinical settings associated with seizures.
Monitor patients with a history of seizure disorders for worsened seizure control during Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules therapy.
Do not abruptly discontinue Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Capsules in a patient physically dependent on opioids. Rapid tapering of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Capsules in a patient physically dependent on opioids may lead to a withdrawal syndrome and return of pain [see Dosage and Administration (2.4), Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Additionally, avoid the use of mixed agonist/antagonist (e.g., pentazocine, nalbuphine, and butorphanol) or partial agonist (e.g., buprenorphine) analgesics in patients who are receiving a full opioid agonist analgesic, including Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules. In these patients, mixed agonist/antagonist and partial agonist analgesics may reduce the analgesic effect and/or precipitate withdrawal symptoms.
When discontinuing Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules, in a physically-dependent patient, gradually taper the dosage [see Dosage and Administration (2.4)]. Abrupt discontinuation of butalbital can cause seizures [see Drug Abuse and Dependence (9.3)].
Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules may impair the mental or physical abilities needed to perform potentially hazardous activities such as driving a car or operating machinery. Warn patients not to drive or operate dangerous machinery unless they are tolerant to the effects of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules and know how they will react to the medication.
Rarely, acetaminophen may cause serious skin reactions such as acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP), Stevens-Johnson Syndrome (SJS), and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), which can be fatal. Patients should be informed about the signs of serious skin reactions, and use of the drug should be discontinued at the first appearance of skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity.
There have been post-marketing reports of hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis associated with the use of acetaminophen. Clinical signs included swelling of the face, mouth, and throat, respiratory distress, urticaria, rash, pruritus, and vomiting. There were infrequent reports of life-threatening anaphylaxis requiring emergency medical attention. Instruct patients to discontinue Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules immediately and seek medical care if they experience these symptoms. Do not prescribe Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules for patients with acetaminophen allergy.
Codeine: Codeine may increase serum amylase levels.
Acetaminophen: Acetaminophen may produce false positive test results for urinary 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid.
This product contains FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) which may cause allergic-type reactions (including bronchial asthma) in certain susceptible persons. Although the overall incidence of FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine) sensitivity in the general population is low, it is frequently seen in patients who also have aspirin hypersensitivity.
The following serious adverse reactions are described, or described in greater detail, in other sections:
- Addiction, Abuse, and Misuse [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
- Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
- Interactions with Benzodiazepines and other CNS Depressants [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
- Ultra-Rapid Metabolism of Codeine and Other Risk Factors for Life-Threatening Respiratory Depression in Children [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
- Neonatal Opioid Withdrawal Syndrome [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]
- Hepatotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)]
- Adrenal Insufficiency [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11)]
- Severe Hypotension [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12)]
- Gastrointestinal Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.14)]
- Seizures [see Warnings and Precautions (5.15)]
- Withdrawal [see Warnings and Precautions (5.16)]
- Serious Skin Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.18)]
- Anaphylaxis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.19)]
The following adverse reactions associated with the use of butalbital, acetaminophen, caffeine, and codeine phosphate were identified in clinical studies or post-marketing reports. Because some of these reactions were reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
The most frequently reported adverse reactions were drowsiness, lightheadedness, dizziness, sedation, shortness of breath, nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and intoxicated feeling.
All adverse events tabulated below are classified as infrequent.
Central Nervous: headache, shaky feeling, tingling, agitation, fainting, fatigue, heavy eyelids, high energy, hot spells, numbness, sluggishness, seizure. Mental confusion, excitement or depression can also occur due to intolerance, particularly in elderly or debilitated patients, or due to overdosage of butalbital.
Autonomic Nervous: dry mouth, hyperhidrosis.
Gastrointestinal: difficulty swallowing, heartburn, flatulence, constipation.
Musculoskeletal: leg pain, muscle fatigue.
Miscellaneous: pruritus, fever, earache, nasal congestion, tinnitus, euphoria, allergic reactions.
The following adverse reactions have been voluntarily reported as temporally associated with Butalbital, Aspirin, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules, a related product containing aspirin, butalbital, caffeine, and codeine phosphate.
Central Nervous: abuse, addiction, anxiety, disorientation, hallucination, hyperactivity, insomnia, libido decrease, nervousness, neuropathy, psychosis, sexual activity increase, slurred speech, twitching, unconsciousness, vertigo.
Autonomic Nervous: epistaxis, flushing, miosis, salivation.
Gastrointestinal: anorexia, appetite increased, diarrhea, esophagitis, gastroenteritis, gastrointestinal spasms, hiccup, mouth burning, pyloric ulcer.
Cardiovascular: chest pain, hypotensive reaction, palpitations, syncope.
Skin: erythema, erythema multiforme, exfoliative dermatitis, hives, rash, toxic epidermal necrolysis.
Urinary: kidney impairment, urinary difficulty.
Miscellaneous: allergic reaction, anaphylactic shock, cholangiocarcinoma, drug interaction with erythromycin (stomach upset), edema.
The following adverse reactions have been reported with the components of Butalbital, Acetaminophen, Caffeine, and Codeine Phosphate Capsules. Potential effects of high dosage are listed in the OVERDOSAGE section.
Acetaminophen: allergic reactions, rash, thrombocytopenia, agranulocytosis.
Caffeine: cardiac stimulation, irritability, tremor, dependence, nephrotoxicity, hyperglycemia.
Codeine: nausea, vomiting, drowsiness, lightheadedness, constipation, pruritus.
Several cases of dermatological reactions, including toxic epidermal necrolysis and erythema multiforme, have been reported for butalbital, acetaminophen, and caffeine tablets, USP.
Serotonin syndrome: Cases of serotonin syndrome, a potentially life-threatening condition, have been reported during concomitant use of opioids with serotonergic drugs.
Adrenal insufficiency: Cases of adrenal insufficiency have been reported with opioid use, more often following greater than one month of use.
Androgen deficiency: Cases of androgen deficiency have occurred with chronic use of opioids [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].
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