BYDUREON (Page 5 of 6)

13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY

13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

A 104-week carcinogenicity study was conducted with exenatide extended-release in male and female rats at doses of 0.3, 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg (2, 9, and 26-times human systemic exposure based on AUC, respectively) administered by subcutaneous injection every other week. A statistically significant increase in thyroid C-cell tumor incidence was observed in both males and females. The incidence of C-cell adenomas was statistically significantly increased at all doses (27% to 31%) in females and at 1.0 and 3.0 mg/kg (46% and 47%, respectively) in males compared with the control group (13% for males and 7% for females). A statistically significantly higher incidence of C-cell carcinomas occurred in the high dose group females (6%), while numerically higher incidences of 3%, 7%, and 4% (non-statistically significant versus controls) were noted in the low, mid, and high dose group males compared with the control group (0% for both males and females). An increase in benign fibromas was seen in the skin subcutis at injection sites of males given 3 mg/kg. No treatment-related injection site fibrosarcomas were observed at any dose. The human relevance of these findings is currently unknown.

A 104-week carcinogenicity study was conducted with exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, in male and female rats at doses of 18, 70, or 250 mcg/kg/day (3, 6, and 27 times human systemic exposure based on AUC, respectively) administered by once daily bolus subcutaneous injection. Benign thyroid C-cell adenomas were observed in female rats at all exenatide doses. The incidences in female rats were 8% and 5% in the two control groups and 14%, 11%, and 23% in the low, medium, and high dose groups.

In a 104-week carcinogenicity study with exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, in male and female mice at doses of 18, 70, or 250 mcg/kg/day administered by once daily bolus subcutaneous injection, no evidence of tumors was observed at doses up to 250 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure up to 16 times the human exposure resulting from the recommended dose of 2 mg/week, based on AUC. The carcinogenicity of exenatide extended-release has not been evaluated in mice.

BYDUREON and exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, were not mutagenic or clastogenic, with or without metabolic activation, in the Ames bacterial mutagenicity assay or chromosomal aberration assay in Chinese hamster ovary cells. Exenatide was negative in the in vivo mouse micronucleus assay.

In mouse fertility studies with exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, at twice-daily subcutaneous doses of 6, 68 or 760 mcg/kg/day, males were treated for 4 weeks prior to and throughout mating, and females were treated 2 weeks prior to mating and throughout mating until gestation day 7. No adverse effect on fertility was observed at 760 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure 148 times the human exposure resulting from the recommended dose of 2 mg/week, based on AUC.

13.3 Reproductive and Developmental Toxicology

A rat embryo-fetal developmental toxicity study was conducted with exenatide extended-release. A complete reproductive and developmental toxicity program was conducted with exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON.

Fetuses from pregnant rats given subcutaneous doses of exenatide extended-release at 0.3, 1 or 3 mg/kg on gestation days 6, 9, 12 and 15 demonstrated reduced fetal growth at all doses and produced skeletal ossification deficits at 1 and 3 mg/kg in association with maternal effects (decreased food intake and decreased body weight gain). There was no evidence of malformations. Doses of 0.3, 1 and 3 mg/kg correspond to systemic exposures of 3, 7 and 17-times, respectively, the human exposure resulting from the recommended dose of 2 mg/week, based on AUC.

In female mice given twice-daily subcutaneous doses of 6, 68, or 760 mcg/kg/day exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, beginning 2 weeks prior to and throughout mating until gestation day 7, there were no adverse fetal effects at doses up to 760 mcg/kg/day, systemic exposures up to 148 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 2 mg/day, based on AUC.

In pregnant mice given twice-daily subcutaneous doses of 6, 68, 460, or 760 mcg/kg/day exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, from gestation day 6 through 15 (organogenesis), cleft palate (some with holes) and irregular fetal skeletal ossification of rib and skull bones were observed at 6 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure equal to the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 2 mg/day, based on AUC.

In pregnant rabbits given twice-daily subcutaneous doses of 0.2, 2, 22, 156, or 260 mcg/kg/day exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, from gestation day 6 through 18 (organogenesis), irregular fetal skeletal ossifications were observed at 2 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure 4 times the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 2 mg/day, based on AUC.

In pregnant mice given twice-daily subcutaneous doses of 6, 68, or 760 mcg/kg/day exenatide, the active ingredient in BYDUREON, from gestation day 6 through lactation day 20 (weaning), an increased number of neonatal deaths was observed on postpartum days 2-4 in dams given 6 mcg/kg/day, a systemic exposure equal to the human exposure resulting from the maximum recommended dose of 2 mg/day, based on AUC.

14 CLINICAL STUDIES

BYDUREON has been studied as monotherapy and in combination with metformin, a sulfonylurea, a thiazolidinedione, a combination of metformin and a sulfonylurea, or a combination of metformin and a thiazolidinedione.

14.1 24-Week Comparator-Controlled Study

A 24-week, randomized, open-label trial was conducted to compare the safety and efficacy of BYDUREON to BYETTA in patients with type 2 diabetes and inadequate glycemic control with diet and exercise alone or with oral antidiabetic therapy, including metformin, a sulfonylurea, a thiazolidinedione, or combination of two of those therapies.

A total of 252 patients were studied: 149 (59%) were Caucasian, 78 (31%) were Hispanic, 15 (6%) were Black and 10 (4%) were Asian. Patients were treated with diet and exercise alone (19%), a single oral antidiabetic agent (47%), or combination therapy of oral antidiabetic agents (35%). The mean baseline HbA1c was 8.4%. Patients were randomly assigned to receive BYDUREON 2 mg once every seven days (weekly) or BYETTA (10 mcg twice-daily), in addition to existing oral antidiabetic agents. Patients assigned to BYETTA initiated treatment with 5 mcg twice-daily then increased the dose to 10 mcg twice-daily after 4 weeks.

The primary endpoint was change in HbA1c from baseline to Week 24 (or the last value at time of early discontinuation). Change in body weight was a secondary endpoint. Twenty-four week study results are summarized in Table 4.

Table 4: Results of 24-week Trial of BYDUREON
BYDUREON2 mg BYETTA10 mcg
N = The number of patients in each treatment group.
Note: Mean Change is Least Squares Mean Change
1 BYETTA 5 mcg twice daily before the morning and evening meals for 4 weeks followed by 10 mcg twice daily for 20 weeks.
*
Least squares means are adjusted for baseline HbA1c strata, background antihyperglycemic therapy, and baseline value of the dependent variable (if applicable).
p <0.001, treatment vs. comparator.
Intent-to-Treat Population (N) 129 123
HbA1c (%)
Mean Baseline 8.5 8.4
Mean Change at Week 24* -1.6 -0.9
Difference from BYETTA * [95% CI] -0.7 [-0.9, -0.4]
Percentage Achieving HbA1c <7% at Week 24 (%) 58 30
Fasting Plasma Glucose (mg/dL)
Mean Baseline 173 168
Mean Change at Week 24 -25 -5
Difference from BYETTA * [95% CI] -20 [-31, -10]

Reductions from mean baseline (97/94 kg) in body weight were observed in both BYDUREON (-2.3 kg) and BYETTA (-1.4 kg) treatment groups.

BYDUREON did not have adverse effects on blood pressure. An LS mean increase from baseline (74 beats per minute) in heart rate of 4 beats per minute was observed with BYDUREON treatment and 2 beats per minute with BYETTA treatment. The long term effects of the increase in pulse rate have not been established [see Warnings and Precautions (5.8)].

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