Calcium Acetate

CALCIUM ACETATE — calcium acetate capsule
State of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Calcium acetate is a phosphate binder indicated to reduce serum phosphorus in patients with end stage renal disease (ESRD).

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

The recommended initial dose of calcium acetate for the adult dialysis patient is 2 capsules with each meal. Increase the dose gradually to lower serum phosphorus levels to the target range, as long as hypercalcemia does not develop. Most patients require 3-4 capsules with each meal.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Capsule: 667 mg calcium acetate per capsule.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Patients with hypercalcemia.

5.1 Hypercalcemia

Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia when treated with calcium, including calcium acetate. Avoid the use of calcium supplements, including calcium based nonprescription antacids, concurrently with calcium acetate.

An overdose of calcium acetate may lead to progressive hypercalcemia, which may require emergency measures. Therefore, early in the treatment phase during the dosage adjustment period, monitor serum calcium levels twice weekly. Should hypercalcemia develop, reduce the calcium acetate dosage, or discontinue the treatment, depending on the severity of hypercalcemia.

More severe hypercalcemia (Ca >12 mg/dL) is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor and coma. Severe hypercalcemia can be treated by acute hemodialysis and discontinuing calcium acetate therapy.

Mild hypercalcemia (10.5 to 11.9 mg/dL) may be asymptomatic or manifest as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. Mild hypercalcemia is usually controlled by reducing the calcium acetate dose or temporarily discontinuing therapy. Decreasing or discontinuing Vitamin D therapy is recommended as well.

Chronic hypercalcemia may lead to vascular calcification and other soft-tissue calcification.

Radiographic evaluation of suspected anatomical regions may be helpful in early detection of soft tissue calcification. The long term effect of calcium acetate on the progression of vascular or soft tissue calcification has not been determined.

Hypercalcemia (>11 mg/dL) was reported in 16% of patients in a 3-month study of solid dose formulation of calcium acetate; all cases resolved upon lowering the dose or discontinuing treatment.

Maintain the serum calcium-phosphorus (Ca x P) product below 55 mg2 /dL2.

5.2 Concomitant Use with Medications

Hypercalcemia may aggravate digitalis toxicity.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

Hypercalcemia is discussed elsewhere [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]

6.1 Clinical Trial Experience

Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.

In clinical studies, calcium acetate has been generally well tolerated.

Calcium acetate was studied in a 3-month, open-label, non-randomized study of 98 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients and an alternate liquid formulation of calcium acetate was studied in a two week double-blind, placebo-controlled, cross-over study with 69 enrolled ESRD hemodialysis patients. Adverse reactions (>2% on treatment) from these trials are presented in Table 1.

Table 1
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Mild hypercalcemia may be asymptomatic or manifest itself as constipation, anorexia, nausea, and vomiting. More severe hypercalcemia is associated with confusion, delirium, stupor, and coma. Decreasing dialysate calcium concentration could reduce the incidence and severity of

calcium acetate-induced hypercalcemia. Isolated cases of pruritus have been reported, which may represent allergic reactions.

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

The following additional adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval of calcium acetate: dizziness, edema, and weakness.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

The drug interaction of calcium acetate is characterized by the potential of calcium to bind to drugs with anionic functions (e.g., carboxyl, and hydroxyl groups). Calcium acetate may decrease the bioavailability of tetracyclines or fluoroquinolones via this mechanism.

There are no empirical data on avoiding drug interactions between calcium acetate and most concomitant drugs. When administering an oral medication with calcium acetate where a reduction in the bioavailability of that medication would have a clinically significant effect on its

safety or efficacy, administer the drug one hour before or three hours after calcium acetate. Monitor blood levels of the concomitant drugs that have a narrow therapeutic range.

Patients taking anti-arrhythmic medications for the control of arrhythmias and anti-seizure medications for the control of seizure disorders were excluded from the clinical trials with all forms of calcium acetate.

7.1 Ciprofloxacin

In a study of 15 healthy subjects, a co-administered single dose of 4 calcium acetate tablets, approximately 2.7 g, decreased the bioavailability of ciprofloxacin by approximately 50%.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C

Calcium acetate capsules contain calcium acetate. Animal reproduction studies have not been conducted with calcium acetate, and there are no adequate and well controlled studies of calcium acetate use in pregnant women. Patients with end stage renal disease may develop hypercalcemia with calcium acetate treatment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Maintenance of normal serum calcium levels is important for maternal and fetal well being. Hypercalcemia during pregnancy may increase the risk for maternal and neonatal complications such as stillbirth, preterm delivery, and neonatal hypocalcemia and hypoparathyroidism. Calcium acetate treatment, as recommended, is not expected to harm a fetus if maternal calcium levels are properly monitored during and following treatment.

8.2 Labor and Delivery

The effects of calcium acetate on labor and delivery are unknown.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

A calcium acetate capsule contains calcium acetate and is excreted in human milk. Human milk feeding by a mother receiving calcium acetate is not expected to harm an infant, provided maternal serum calcium levels are appropriately monitored.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established.

8.5 Geriatric Use

Clinical studies of calcium acetate did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between elderly and younger patients. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.

10 OVERDOSAGE

Administration of calcium acetate in excess of the appropriate daily dosage may result in hypercalcemia [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].

11 DESCRIPTION

Calcium acetate acts as a phosphate binder. Its chemical name is calcium acetate. Its molecular formula is C4 H6 CaO4 , and its molecular weight is 158.17. Its structural formula is:

structure
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Each capsule is of size ‘00el’ hard gelatin capsule shell with blue opaque cap and white opaque body imprinted with “667 mg” on cap and “IG 377” on body in black ink filled with white to off white powder. Each capsule contains 667 mg calcium acetate, USP (anhydrous; CaCH3COO)2 ; MW=158.17 grams) equal to 169 mg (8.45 mEq) calcium. Each capsule contains the following inactive ingredients: Sodium Lauryl Sulfate and Sodium Stearyl Fumarate. The gelatin cap and body have the following inactive ingredients: FD&C blue #1, FD&C red #3, titanium dioxide, USP, gelatin, USP and iron oxide black.

Calcium acetate capsules are administered orally for the control of hyperphosphatemia in end stage renal failure.

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