Calcium Gluconate (Page 2 of 3)

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection is a clear, colorless solution available in the following:

Injection:

  • Calcium gluconate 1,000 mg per 50 mL (20 mg per mL) single-dose container.
  • Calcium gluconate 2,000 mg per 100 mL (20 mg per mL) single-dose container.

Each mL of Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection contains 20 mg of calcium gluconate which contains 1.86 mg (0.093 mEq) of elemental calcium.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection is contraindicated in:

  • Hypercalcemia
  • Neonates (28 days of age or younger) receiving ceftriaxone [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Arrhythmias with Concomitant Cardiac Glycoside Use

Cardiac arrhythmias may occur if calcium and cardiac glycosides are administered together. Hypercalcemia increases the risk of digoxin toxicity. Administration of Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection should be avoided in patients receiving cardiac glycosides. If concomitant therapy is necessary, Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection should be given slowly in small amounts and with close ECG monitoring [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

5.2 End-Organ Damage due to Intravascular Ceftriaxone-Calcium Precipitates

Concomitant use of ceftriaxone and Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection is contraindicated in neonates (28 days of age or younger) due to cases of fatal outcomes in neonates in which a crystalline material was observed in the lungs and kidneys at autopsy after ceftriaxone and calcium were administrated simultaneously through the same intravenous line. Concomitant administration can lead to the formation of ceftriaxone-calcium precipitates that may act as emboli, resulting in vascular spasm or infarction [see Contraindications (4)].

In patients older than 28 days of age, ceftriaxone and Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection may be administered sequentially, provided the infusion lines are thoroughly flushed between infusions with a compatible fluid. Do not administer Ceftriaxone simultaneously with Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection via a Y-site in any age group.

5.3 Tissue Necrosis and Calcinosis

Intravenous administration of Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection and local trauma may result in calcinosis cutis due to transient increase in local calcium concentration. Calcinosis cutis can occur with or without extravasation of Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection, is characterized by abnormal dermal deposits of calcium salts, and clinically manifests as papules, plaques, or nodules that may be associated with erythema, swelling, or induration. Tissue necrosis, ulceration, and secondary infection are the most serious complications.

If extravasation occurs or clinical manifestations of calcinosis cutis are noted, immediately discontinue intravenous administration at that site and treat as needed.

5.4 Hypotension, Bradycardia, and Cardiac Arrhythmias with Rapid Administration

Rapid injection of Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection may cause vasodilation, decreased blood pressure, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmias, syncope and cardiac arrest. To avoid adverse reactions that may follow rapid intravenous administration, Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection should be infused slowly. If rapid intravenous bolus of Calcium Gluconate Injection is required, the rate of intravenous administration should not exceed 200 mg/minute in adults and 100 mg/minute in pediatric patients and ECG monitoring during administration is recommended [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)].

5.5 Aluminum Toxicity

Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection contains aluminum, up to 100 mcg per liter, that may be toxic. Aluminum may reach toxic levels with prolonged parenteral administration if kidney function is impaired. Premature neonates are particularly at risk because their kidneys are immature, and they require large amounts of calcium and phosphate solutions, which contain aluminum. Research indicates that patients with impaired kidney function, including premature neonates, who receive parenteral levels of aluminum at greater than 4 mcg/kg/day to 5 mcg/kg/day accumulate aluminum levels associated with central nervous system and bone toxicity. Tissue loading may occur at even lower rates of administration.

6 ADVERSE REACTIONS

The following serious adverse reactions are also described elsewhere in the labeling:

  • Arrhythmias with Concomitant Cardiac Glycoside Use [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
  • End-Organ Damage due to Intravascular Ceftriaxone-Calcium Precipitates [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]
  • Tissue Necrosis and Calcinosis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]
  • Hypotension, Bradycardia, and Cardiac Arrhythmias [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]
  • Aluminum toxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]

The following adverse reactions associated with the use of calcium gluconate were identified in the literature. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to estimate their frequency reliably or to establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.

Cardiovascular: Vasodilation, decreased blood pressure, bradycardia, cardiac arrhythmia, syncope, cardiac arrest

Administration site reactions: Local soft tissue inflammation, local necrosis, calcinosis cutis and calcification due to extravasation

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Cardiac Glycosides

Hypercalcemia increases the risk of digoxin toxicity, while digoxin may be therapeutically ineffective in the presence of hypocalcemia. Synergistic arrhythmias may occur if calcium and cardiac glycosides are administered together. Avoid administration of Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection in patients receiving cardiac glycosides; if considered necessary, administer Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection slowly in small amounts and monitor ECG closely during administration.

7.2 Calcium Channel Blockers

Administration of calcium may reduce the response to calcium channel blockers.

7.3 Drugs that may cause Hypercalcemia

Vitamin D, vitamin A, thiazide diuretics, estrogen, calcipotriene and teriparatide administration may cause hypercalcemia. Monitor plasma calcium concentrations in patients taking these drugs concurrently.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk summary

Limited available data with Calcium Gluconate Injection use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. There are risks to the mother and the fetus associated with hypocalcemia in pregnancy [see Clinical Considerations].

The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2-4% and 15-20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Disease-associated maternal risk

Maternal hypocalcemia can result in an increased rate of spontaneous abortion, premature and dysfunctional labor, and possibly preeclampsia.

Fetal/Neonatal adverse reactions

Infants born to mothers with hypocalcemia can have associated fetal and neonatal hyperparathyroidism, which in turn can cause fetal and neonatal skeletal demineralization, subperiosteal bone resorption, osteitis fibrosa cystica and neonatal seizures. Infants born to mothers with hypocalcemia should be carefully monitored for signs of hypocalcemia or hypercalcemia, including neuromuscular irritability, apnea, cyanosis and cardiac rhythm disorders.

8.2 Lactation

Risk summary

Calcium is present in human milk as a natural component of human milk. It is not known whether intravenous administration of Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection can alter calcium concentration in human milk. There are no data on the effects of Calcium Gluconate Injection on the breastfed infant, or on milk production. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from Calcium Gluconate in Sodium Chloride Injection or from the underlying maternal condition.

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