In 875 patients with either metastatic breast or colorectal cancer who received at least one dose of capecitabine 1250 mg/m2 twice daily as monotherapy for 2 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period, grade 3 (1.5 to 3 x ULN) hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 15.2% (n=133) of patients and grade 4 (>3 x ULN) hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 3.9% (n=34) of patients. Of 566 patients who had hepatic metastases at baseline and 309 patients without hepatic metastases at baseline, grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 22.8% and 12.3%, respectively. Of the 167 patients with grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia, 18.6% (n=31) also had postbaseline elevations (grades 1 to 4, without elevations at baseline) in alkaline phosphatase and 27.5% (n=46) had postbaseline elevations in transaminases at any time (not necessarily concurrent). The majority of these patients, 64.5% (n=20) and 71.7% (n=33), had liver metastases at baseline. In addition, 57.5% (n=96) and 35.3% (n=59) of the 167 patients had elevations (grades 1 to 4) at both prebaseline and postbaseline in alkaline phosphatase or transaminases, respectively. Only 7.8% (n=13) and 3% (n=5) had grade 3 or 4 elevations in alkaline phosphatase or transaminases.
In the 596 patients treated with capecitabine as first-line therapy for metastatic colorectal cancer, the incidence of grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia was similar to the overall clinical trial safety database of capecitabine monotherapy. The median time to onset for grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia in the colorectal cancer population was 64 days and median total bilirubin increased from 8 µm/L at baseline to 13 µm/L during treatment with capecitabine. Of the 136 colorectal cancer patients with grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia, 49 patients had grade 3 or 4 hyperbilirubinemia as their last measured value, of which 46 had liver metastases at baseline.
In 251 patients with metastatic breast cancer who received a combination of capecitabine and docetaxel, grade 3 (1.5 to 3 x ULN) hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 7% (n=17) and grade 4 (>3 x ULN) hyperbilirubinemia occurred in 2% (n=5).
If drug-related grade 3 to 4 elevations in bilirubin occur, administration of capecitabine should be immediately interrupted until the hyperbilirubinemia decreases to ≤3 X ULN [ see recommended dose modifications under Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
In 875 patients with either metastatic breast or colorectal cancer who received a dose of 1250 mg/m2 administered twice daily as monotherapy for 2 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period, 3.2%, 1.7%, and 2.4% of patients had grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, thrombocytopenia or decreases in hemoglobin, respectively. In 251 patients with metastatic breast cancer who received a dose of capecitabine in combination with docetaxel, 68% had grade 3 or 4 neutropenia, 2.8% had grade 3 or 4 thrombocytopenia, and 9.6% had grade 3 or 4 anemia.Patients with baseline neutrophil counts of <1.5 x 109 /L and/or thrombocyte counts of <100 x 109 /L should not be treated with capecitabine. If unscheduled laboratory assessments during a treatment cycle show grade 3 or 4 hematologic toxicity, treatment with capecitabine should be interrupted.
Patients ≥80 years old may experience a greater incidence of grade 3 or 4 adverse reactions. In 875 patients with either metastatic breast or colorectal cancer who received capecitabine monotherapy, 62% of the 21 patients ≥80 years of age treated with capecitabine experienced a treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse event: diarrhea in 6 (28.6%), nausea in 3 (14.3%), hand-and-foot syndrome in 3 (14.3%), and vomiting in 2 (9.5%) patients. Among the 10 patients 70 years of age and greater (no patients were >80 years of age) treated with capecitabine in combination with docetaxel, 30% (3 out of 10) of patients experienced grade 3 or 4 diarrhea and stomatitis, and 40% (4 out of 10) experienced grade 3 hand-and-foot syndrome.
Among the 67 patients ≥60 years of age receiving capecitabine in combination with docetaxel, the incidence of grade 3 or 4 treatment-related adverse reactions, treatment-related serious adverse reactions, withdrawals due to adverse reactions, treatment discontinuations due to adverse reactions and treatment discontinuations within the first two treatment cycles was higher than in the <60 years of age patient group.In 995 patients receiving capecitabine as adjuvant therapy for Dukes’ C colon cancer after resection of the primary tumor, 41% of the 398 patients ≥65 years of age treated with capecitabine experienced a treatment-related grade 3 or 4 adverse event: hand-and-foot syndrome in 75 (18.8%), diarrhea in 52 (13.1%), stomatitis in 12 (3%), neutropenia/granulocytopenia in 11 (2.8%), vomiting in 6 (1.5%), and nausea in 5 (1.3%) patients. In patients ≥65 years of age (all randomized population; capecitabine 188 patients, 5-FU/LV 208 patients) treated for Dukes’ C colon cancer after resection of the primary tumor, the hazard ratios for disease-free survival and overall survival for capecitabine compared to 5-FU/LV were 1.01 (95% C.I. 0.8 to 1.27) and 1.04 (95% C.I. 0.79 to 1.37), respectively.
Patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction due to liver metastases should be carefully monitored when capecitabine tablets are administered. The effect of severe hepatic dysfunction on the disposition of capecitabine is not known [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Use of capecitabine in combination with irinotecan has not been adequately studied.
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Table 4 shows the adverse reactions occurring in ≥5% of patients from one phase 3 trial in patients with Dukes’ C colon cancer who received at least one dose of study medication and had at least one safety assessment. A total of 995 patients were treated with 1250 mg/m2 twice a day of capecitabine tablets administered for 2 weeks followed by a 1-week rest period, and 974 patients were administered 5-FU and leucovorin (20 mg/m2 leucovorin IV followed by 425 mg/m2 IV bolus 5-FU on days 1 to 5 every 28 days). The median duration of treatment was 164 days for capecitabine-treated patients and 145 days for 5-FU/LV-treated patients. A total of 112 (11%) and 73 (7%) capecitabine and 5-FU/LV-treated patients, respectively, discontinued treatment because of adverse reactions. A total of 18 deaths due to all causes occurred either on study or within 28 days of receiving study drug: 8 (0.8%) patients randomized to capecitabine and 10 (1%) randomized to 5-FU/LV.
Table 5 shows grade 3/4 laboratory abnormalities occurring in ≥1% of patients from one phase 3 trial in patients with Dukes’ C colon cancer who received at least one dose of study medication and had at least one safety assessment.
Table 4 Percent Incidence of Adverse Reactions Reported in ≥5% of Patients Treated With Capecitabine or 5-FU/LV for Colon Cancer in the Adjuvant Setting (Safety Population)
|Adjuvant Treatment for Colon Cancer (N=1969)|
|Capecitabine (N=995)||5-FU/LV (N=974)|
|Body System/ Adverse Event||All Grades||Grade 3/4||All Grades||Grade 3/4|
|Gastrointestinal Disorders Diarrhea Nausea Stomatitis Vomiting Abdominal PainConstipation Upper Abdominal Pain Dyspepsia||4734221514976||122223-<1<1||65476021161175||1421422<1<1-|
|Skin and Subcutaneous Tissue Disorders Hand-and-Foot Syndrome Alopecia Rash Erythema||60676||17–1||92285||<1<1-<1|
|General Disorders and Administration Site Conditions FatiguePyrexia Asthenia Lethargy||1671010||<1<1<1<1||169109||1<11<1|
|Nervous System Disorders Dizziness Headache Dysgeusia||656||<1<1-||669||-<1-|
|Metabolism and Nutrition Disorders Anorexia||9||<1||11||<1|
|Eye Disorders Conjunctivitis||5||<1||6||<1|
|Blood and Lymphatic System Disorders Neutropenia||2||<1||8||5|
|Respiratory Thoracic and Mediastinal Disorders Epistaxis||2||–||5||–|
Table 5 Percent Incidence of Grade 3/4 Laboratory Abnormalities Reported in ≥1% of Patients Receiving Capecitabine Monotherapy for Adjuvant Treatment of Colon Cancer (Safety Population)
|Adverse Event||Capecitabine (n=995) Grade 3/4 %||IV 5-FU/LV (n=974) Grade 3/4 %|
|Increased ALAT (SGPT) Increased calcium Decreased calcium Decreased hemoglobin Decreased lymphocytes Decreased neutrophils* Decreased neutrophils/granulocytes Decreased platelets Increased bilirubin**||184.108.40.206132.22.4120||0.60.72.21.213220.127.116.11.3|
*The incidence of grade 3/4 white blood cell abnormalities was 1.3% in the capecitabine arm and 4.9% in the IV 5-FU/LV arm.
**It should be noted that grading was according to NCIC CTC Version 1 (May, 1994). In the NCIC-CTC Version 1, hyperbilirubinemia grade 3 indicates a bilirubin value of 1.5 to 3 × upper limit of normal (ULN) range, and grade 4 a value of > 3 × ULN. The NCI CTC Version 2 and above define a grade 3 bilirubin value of >3 to 10 × ULN, and grade 4 values >10 × ULN.
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