Food was shown to reduce both the rate and extent of absorption of capecitabine [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)]. In all clinical trials, patients were instructed to administer capecitabine within 30 minutes after a meal. It is recommended that capecitabine be administered with food [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Based on findings in animal reproduction studies and its mechanism of action, capecitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.1)]. Limited available human data are not sufficient to inform the drug-associated risk during pregnancy. In animal reproduction studies, administration of capecitabine to pregnant animals during the period of organogenesis caused embryo lethality and teratogenicity in mice and embryo lethality in monkeys at 0.2 and 0.6 times the exposure (AUC) in patients receiving the recommended dose respectively [see Data]. Apprise pregnant women of the potential risk to a fetus.
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated population is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
Oral administration of capecitabine to pregnant mice during the period of organogenesis at a dose of 198 mg/kg/day caused malformations and embryo lethality. In separate pharmacokinetic studies, this dose in mice produced 5’-DFUR AUC values that were approximately 0.2 times the AUC values in patients administered the recommended daily dose. Malformations in mice included cleft palate, anophthalmia, microphthalmia, oligodactyly, polydactyly, syndactyly, kinky tail and dilation of cerebral ventricles. Oral administration of capecitabine to pregnant monkeys during the period of organogenesis at a dose of 90 mg/kg/day caused fetal lethality. This dose produced 5’-DFUR AUC values that were approximately 0.6 times the AUC values in patients administered the recommended daily dose.
There is no information regarding the presence of capecitabine in human milk, or on its effects on milk production or the breast-fed infant. Capecitabine metabolites were present in the milk of lactating mice [see Data]. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from capecitabine exposure in breast-fed infants, advise women not to breastfeed during treatment with capecitabine and for 2 weeks after the final dose.
Lactating mice given a single oral dose of capecitabine excreted significant amounts of capecitabine metabolites into the milk.
Pregnancy testing is recommended for females of reproductive potential prior to initiating capecitabine.
Capecitabine can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 6 months following the final dose of capecitabine.
Based on genetic toxicity findings, advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 3 months following the final dose of capecitabine [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
Based on animal studies, capecitabine may impair fertility in females and males of reproductive potential [see Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1)].
The safety and effectiveness of capecitabine in pediatric patients have not been established. No clinical benefit was demonstrated in two single arm trials in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed brainstem gliomas and high grade gliomas. In both trials, pediatric patients received an investigational pediatric formulation of capecitabine concomitantly with and following completion of radiation therapy (total dose of 5580 cGy in 180 cGy fractions). The relative bioavailability of the investigational formulation to capecitabine was similar.
The first trial was conducted in 22 pediatric patients (median age 8 years, range 5 to 17 years) with newly diagnosed non-disseminated intrinsic diffuse brainstem gliomas and high grade gliomas. In the dose-finding portion of the trial, patients received capecitabine with concomitant radiation therapy at doses ranging from 500 mg/m2 to 850 mg/m2 every 12 hours for up to 9 weeks. After a 2 week break, patients received 1250 mg/m2 capecitabine every 12 hours on Days 1 to 14 of a 21-day cycle for up to 3 cycles. The maximum tolerated dose (MTD) of capecitabine administered concomitantly with radiation therapy was 650 mg/m2 every 12 hours. The major dose limiting toxicities were palmar-plantar erythrodysesthesia and alanine aminotransferase (ALT) elevation.
The second trial was conducted in 34 additional pediatric patients with newly diagnosed non-disseminated intrinsic diffuse brainstem gliomas (median age 7 years, range 3 to 16 years) and 10 pediatric patients who received the MTD of capecitabine in the dose-finding trial and met the eligibility criteria for this trial. All patients received 650 mg/m2 capecitabine every 12 hours with concomitant radiation therapy for up to 9 weeks. After a 2 week break, patients received 1250 mg/m2 capecitabine every 12 hours on Days 1 to 14 of a 21-day cycle for up to 3 cycles.
There was no improvement in one-year progression-free survival rate and one-year overall survival rate in pediatric patients with newly diagnosed intrinsic brainstem gliomas who received capecitabine relative to a similar population of pediatric patients who participated in other clinical trials.
The adverse reaction profile of capecitabine was consistent with the known adverse reaction profile in adults, with the exception of laboratory abnormalities which occurred more commonly in pediatric patients. The most frequently reported laboratory abnormalities (per-patient incidence ≥40%) were increased ALT (75%), lymphocytopenia (73%), leukopenia (73%), hypokalemia (68%), thrombocytopenia (57%), hypoalbuminemia (55%), neutropenia (50%), low hematocrit (50%), hypocalcemia (48%), hypophosphatemia (45%) and hyponatremia (45%).
Physicians should pay particular attention to monitoring the adverse effects of capecitabine in the elderly [see Warnings and Precautions (5.10)].
Exercise caution when patients with mild to moderate hepatic dysfunction due to liver metastases are treated with capecitabine. The effect of severe hepatic dysfunction on capecitabine is not known [see Warnings and Precautions (5.11) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Patients with moderate (creatinine clearance = 30 to 50 mL/min) and severe (creatinine clearance <30 mL/min) renal impairment showed higher exposure for capecitabine, 5-DFUR, and FBAL than in those with normal renal function [see Contraindications (4.2), Warnings and Precautions (5.5), Dosage and Administration (2.4), and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
The manifestations of acute overdose would include nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, gastrointestinal irritation and bleeding, and bone marrow depression. Medical management of overdose should include customary supportive medical interventions aimed at correcting the presenting clinical manifestations. Although no clinical experience using dialysis as a treatment for capecitabine overdose has been reported, dialysis may be of benefit in reducing circulating concentrations of 5’-DFUR, a low–molecular-weight metabolite of the parent compound.
Single doses of capecitabine were not lethal to mice, rats, and monkeys at doses up to 2000 mg/kg (2.4, 4.8, and 9.6 times the recommended human daily dose on a mg/m2 basis).
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