Carbidopa and Levodopa (Page 4 of 6)

Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility

In a two-year bioassay of carbidopa and levodopa immediate-release, no evidence of carcinogenicity was found in rats receiving doses of approximately two times the maximum daily human dose of carbidopa and four times the maximum daily human dose of levodopa (equivalent to 8 carbidopa and levodopa extended-release tablets).

In reproduction studies with carbidopa and levodopa immediate-release, no effects on fertility were found in rats receiving doses of approximately two times the maximum daily human dose of carbidopa and four times the maximum daily human dose of levodopa (equivalent to 8 carbidopa and levodopa extended-release tablets).

Pregnancy

No teratogenic effects were observed in a study in mice receiving up to 20 times the maximum recommended human dose of carbidopa and levodopa immediate-release. There was a decrease in the number of live pups delivered by rats receiving approximately two times the maximum recommended human dose of carbidopa and approximately five times the maximum recommended human dose of levodopa during organogenesis. Carbidopa and levodopa immediate-release caused both visceral and skeletal malformations in rabbits at all doses and ratios of carbidopa/levodopa tested, which ranged from 10 times/5 times the maximum recommended human dose of carbidopa/levodopa to 20 times/10 times the maximum recommended human dose of carbidopa/levodopa.

There are no adequate or well-controlled studies in pregnant women. It has been reported from individual cases that levodopa crosses the human placental barrier, enters the fetus, and is metabolized. Carbidopa concentrations in fetal tissue appeared to be minimal. Use of carbidopa and levodopa extended-release in women of childbearing potential requires that the anticipated benefits of the drug be weighed against possible hazards to mother and child.

Nursing Mothers

Levodopa has been detected in human milk. Caution should be exercised when carbidopa and levodopa extended-release is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use

Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. Use of the drug in patients below the age of 18 is not recommended.

Geriatric Use

In the clinical efficacy trials for carbidopa and levodopa immediate-release, almost half of the patients were older than 65, but few were older than 75. No overall meaningful differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals to adverse drug reactions such as hallucinations cannot be ruled out. There is no specific dosing recommendation based upon clinical pharmacology data as carbidopa and levodopa immediate-release and carbidopa and levodopa extended-release are titrated as tolerated for clinical effect.

ADVERSE REACTIONS

In controlled clinical trials, patients predominantly with moderate to severe motor fluctuations while on carbidopa and levodopa immediate-release were randomized to therapy with either carbidopa and levodopa immediate-release or carbidopa and levodopa extended-release. The adverse experience frequency profile of carbidopa and levodopa extended-release did not differ substantially from that of carbidopa and levodopa immediate-release, as shown in Table 1.

Table 1: Clinical Adverse Experiences Occurring in 1% or Greater of Patients

Adverse Experience

Carbidopa and Levodopa

Extended-Release

n = 491

%

Carbidopa and Levodopa

Immediate-Release

n = 524

%

Dyskinesia

16.5

12.2

Nausea

5.5

5.7

Hallucinations

3.9

3.2

Confusion

3.7

2.3

Dizziness

2.9

2.3

Depression

2.2

1.3

Urinary tract infection

2.2

2.3

Headache

2.0

1.9

Dream abnormalities

1.8

0.8

Dystonia

1.8

0.8

Vomiting

1.8

1.9

Upper respiratory infection

1.8

1.0

Dyspnea

1.6

0.4

‘On-Off’ phenomena

1.6

1.1

Back pain

1.6

0.6

Dry mouth

1.4

1.1

Anorexia

1.2

1.1

Diarrhea

1.2

0.6

Insomnia

1.2

1.0

Orthostatic hypotension

1.0

1.1

Shoulder pain

1.0

0.6

Chest pain

1.0

0.8

Muscle cramps

0.8

1.0

Paresthesia

0.8

1.1

Urinary frequency

0.8

1.1

Dyspepsia

0.6

1.1

Constipation

0.2

1.5

Abnormal laboratory findings occurring at a frequency of 1% or greater in approximately 443 patients who received carbidopa and levodopa extended-release and 475 who received carbidopa and levodopa immediate-release during controlled clinical trials included: decreased hemoglobin and hematocrit; elevated serum glucose; white blood cells, bacteria and blood in the urine.

The adverse experiences observed in patients in uncontrolled studies were similar to those seen in controlled clinical studies.

Other adverse experiences reported overall in clinical trials in 748 patients treated with carbidopa and levodopa extended-release, listed by body system in order of decreasing frequency, include:

Body as a Whole: Asthenia, fatigue, abdominal pain, orthostatic effects.

Cardiovascular: Palpitation, hypertension, hypotension, myocardial infarction.

Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal pain, dysphagia, heartburn.

Metabolic: Weight loss.

Musculoskeletal: Leg pain.

Nervous System/Psychiatric: Chorea, somnolence, falling, anxiety, disorientation, decreased mental acuity, gait abnormalities, extrapyramidal disorder, agitation, nervousness, sleep disorders, memory impairment.

Respiratory: Cough, pharyngeal pain, common cold.

Skin: Rash.

Special Senses: Blurred vision.

Urogenital: Urinary incontinence.

Laboratory Tests: Decreased white blood cell count and serum potassium; increased BUN, serum creatinine and serum LDH; protein and glucose in the urine.

The following adverse experiences have been reported in postmarketing experience with carbidopa and levodopa extended-release:

Cardiovascular: Cardiac irregularities, syncope.

Gastrointestinal: Taste alterations, dark saliva.

Hypersensitivity: Angioedema, urticaria, pruritus, bullous lesions (including pemphigus-like reactions).

Nervous System/Psychiatric: Increased tremor, peripheral neuropathy, psychotic episodes including delusions and paranoid ideation, pathological gambling, increased libido including hypersexuality, impulse control symptoms.

Skin: Alopecia, flushing, dark sweat.

Urogenital: Dark urine.

Other adverse reactions that have been reported with levodopa alone and with various carbidopa-levodopa formulations and may occur with carbidopa and levodopa extended-release are:

Cardiovascular: Phlebitis.

Gastrointestinal: Gastrointestinal bleeding, development of duodenal ulcer, sialorrhea, bruxism, hiccups, flatulence, burning sensation of tongue.

Hematologic: Hemolytic and nonhemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, leukopenia, agranulocytosis.

Hypersensitivity: Henoch-Schonlein purpura.

Metabolic: Weight gain, edema.

Nervous System/Psychiatric: Ataxia, depression with suicidal tendencies, dementia, euphoria, convulsions (however, a causal relationship has not been established); bradykinetic episodes, numbness, muscle twitching, blepharospasm (which may be taken as an early sign of excess dosage; consideration of dosage reduction may be made at this time), trismus, activation of latent Horner’s syndrome, nightmares.

Skin: Malignant melanoma (see also CONTRAINDICATIONS), increased sweating.

Special Senses: Oculogyric crises, mydriasis, diplopia.

Urogenital: Urinary retention, priapism.

Miscellaneous: Faintness, hoarseness, malaise, hot flashes, sense of stimulation, bizarre breathing patterns.

Laboratory Tests: Abnormalities in alkaline phosphatase, SGOT (AST), SGPT (ALT), bilirubin, Coombs test, uric acid.

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