CARBINOXAMINE MALEATE- carbinoxamine maleate tablet
Carbinoxamine maleate is a histamine-H1 receptor blocking agent.
Each tablet contains 6 mg carbinoxamine maleate and the following inactive ingredients: anhydrous lactose, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, and sodium starch glycolate.
Carbinoxamine maleate is freely soluble in water. Its structure is:
2-[(4-chlorophenyl)-2-pyridinylmethoxy]-N, N-dimethylethanamine (Z)-2-butenedioate (1:1)
C16 H19 CIN2 O·C4 H4 O4
Carbinoxamine maleate, an ethanolamine derivative, is an antihistamine with anticholinergic (drying) and sedative properties. Carbinoxamine appears to compete with histamine (type H1) for receptor sites on effector cells in the gastrointestinal tract, blood vessels and respiratory tract.
Carbinoxamine is well absorbed from the GI tract and appears to be extensively metabolized by the liver, and excreted in the urine as inactive metabolites within 24 hours. Virtually no intact drug is extended in the urine.
In a study comparing a controlled release suspension and a solution of carbinoxamine, healthy volunteers were administered a single dose of 8 mg carbinoxamine. A time to maximum concentration (Tmax) was between 1.5 hours to 5 hours, a peak plasma concentration (Cmax) of about 24 ng/mL was observed, and extent of exposure (AUC) was about 286 ng hr/mL. The serum half-life is reported to be 10 to 20 hours.
Carbinoxamine should not be used in patients with hypersensitivity to carbinoxamine. Carbinoxamine may increase the effects of other drugs such as barbiturates, TCAs, MAO inhibitors such as Phenelzine (Nardil), Tranylcypromine (Parnate), or Selegiline (Eldepryl), alcohol, other antihistamines, and CNS depressants. Carbinoxamine can be taken with or without food.
Cardiac effects, including prolongation of QT interval have not been adequately studied. Unlike other newer antihistamines, severe adverse cardiovascular effects are uncommon, and usually limited to over dosage situations.
Carbinoxamine should not be used in newborn or premature infants. Neonates have an increased susceptibility to anticholinergic side effects, such as CNS excitation, which may lead to convulsions.
Safe use of carbinoxamine during pregnancy has not been established. Therefore, carbinoxamine should not be used in women who are, or may become pregnant. Carbinoxamine is in the FDA pregnancy Category C. Women who are breast-feeding should avoid use of carbinoxamine, since small amounts appear to be distributed into breast milk.
Carbinoxamine is more likely to cause dizziness, sedation, and hypotension in elderly patients. The incidence of adverse reactions is higher in the elderly; therefore, a dosing adjustment may be necessary in this subpopulation.
Carbinoxamine maleate is effective for the symptomatic treatment of:
Seasonal and perennial allergic rhinitis.
Allergic conjunctivitis due to inhalant allergens and foods.
Mild, uncomplicated allergic skin manifestations of urticaria and angioedema.
As therapy for anaphylactic reactions adjunctive to epinephrine and other standard measures after the acute manifestations have been controlled.
Amelioration of the severity of allergic reactions to blood or plasma.
Carbinoxamine maleate is contraindicated in children younger than 2 years of age.
Carbinoxamine maleate is contraindicated in nursing mothers.
Carbinoxamine maleate is contraindicated in patients who are hypersensitive to the drug or on monoamine oxidase inhibitor therapy (see Drug Interactions).
Deaths have been reported in children less than 2 years of age who were taking antihistamines, including carbinoxamine-containing drug products, therefore, carbinoxamine maleate is contraindicated in children younger than 2 years of age (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Antihistamines should be used with considerable caution in patients with: narrow angle glaucoma, stenosing peptic ulcer, symptomatic prostatic hypertrophy, bladder neck obstruction, pyloroduodenal obstruction.
As many other antihistamines, carbinoxamine maleate has an atropine-like action and, therefore, should be used with caution in patients with: increased intraocular pressure, hyperthyroidism, cardiovascular disease, hypertension.
Antihistamines such as carbinoxamine maleate should not be used to treat lower respiratory tract symptoms, including asthma.
Carbinoxamine maleate may cause drowsiness; alcohol, sedatives, and tranquilizers may increase the drowsiness effect. Avoid alcoholic beverages while taking this product. Do not take this product if you are taking sedatives or tranquilizers, without first consulting your doctor. Use caution when driving a motor vehicle or operating machinery.
Monoamine oxidase inhibitors prolong and intensify the anticholinergic (drying) effects of antihistamines. Carbinoxamine maleate has additive effects with alcohol and other CNS depressants (hypnotics, sedatives, tranquilizers, etc.).
No long-term studies in animals have been performed to determine the possible effects of carbinoxamine maleate on carcinogenesis, mutagenesis, and fertility.
Animal reproductive studies have not been conducted with carbinoxamine maleate. It is also not known whether carbinoxamine maleate can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman or can affect reproductive capacity. Carbinoxamine maleate should be given to a pregnant woman only if clearly needed.
Because of the higher risk of antihistamines for infants generally and for newborns and prematures in particular, use of carbinoxamine maleate is contraindicated in nursing mothers (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Carbinoxamine maleate is contraindicated in children younger than 2 years of age (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).
Neonates have an increased susceptibility to anticholinergic side effects, such as CNS excitation, which may lead to convulsions.
Carbinoxamine maleate may diminish mental alertness in children. In the young child, particularly, they may produce excitation.
Carbinoxamine maleate is more likely to cause dizziness, sedation, and hypotension in elderly patients (approximately 60 years or older). Sedating drugs may also cause confusion and over sedation in the elderly. Therefore, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, usually starting at the low end of the dosing range, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy.
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