Cefaclor

CEFACLOR- cefaclor for suspension
Zylera Pharmaceuticals, LLC

Rx Only

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Cefaclor for Oral Suspension and other antibacterial drugs, Cefaclor for Oral Suspension, USP, should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DESCRIPTION

Cefaclor, USP, is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic for oral administration. It is chemically designated as 3-chloro-7-D-(2-phenylglycinamido)-3-cephem-4-carboxylic acid monohydrate. The chemical formula for cefaclor is C15 H14 ClN3 O4 S∙H2 O and the molecular weight is 385.82.

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

After mixing, each 5 mL of Cefaclor for Oral Suspension will contain cefaclor monohydrate equivalent to 125 mg (0.34 mmol), 250 mg (0.68 mmol), or 375 mg (1.0 mmol) anhydrous cefaclor. The suspensions also contain methylcellulose, sodium lauryl sulfate, sucrose, and xanthan gum, FD&C Red No. 40, strawberry flavor.

The color of drug powder in the dry powder state is white to off-white. After reconstitution, it turns to a red suspension.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Cefaclor is well-absorbed after oral administration to fasting subjects. Total absorption is the same whether the drug is given with or without food; however, when it is taken with food, the peak concentration achieved is 50% to 75% of that observed when the drug is administered to fasting subjects and generally appears from three-fourths to 1 hour later. Following administration of 250 mg, 500 mg, and 1 g doses to fasting subjects, average peak serum levels of approximately 7, 13, and 23 mcg/mL, respectively, were obtained within 30 to 60 minutes. Approximately 60% to 85% of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine within 8 hours, the greater portion being excreted within the first 2 hours. During this 8-hour period, peak urine concentrations following the 250 mg, 500 mg and 1 g doses were approximately 600, 900 and 1,900 mcg/mL, respectively. The serum half-life in normal subjects is 0.6 to 0.9 hour. In patients with reduced renal function, the serum half-life of cefaclor is slightly prolonged. In those with complete absence of renal function, the plasma half-life of the intact molecule is 2.3 to 2.8 hours. Excretion pathways in patients with markedly impaired renal function have not been determined. Hemodialysis shortens the half-life by 25% to 30%.

Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

As with other cephalosporins, the bactericidal action of cefaclor results from inhibition of cell-wall synthesis.

Mechanism of Resistance

Resistance to cefaclor is primarily through hydrolysis of beta-lactamases, alteration of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) and decreased permeability. Pseudomonas spp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and most strains of Enterococci (Enterococcus faecalis , group D streptococci), Enterobacter spp., indole-positive Proteus, Morganella morganii (formerly Proteus morganii), Providencia rettgeri (formerly Proteus rettgeri), and Serratia spp. are resistant to cefaclor. Cefaclor is inactive against methicillin-resistant staphylococci. β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant strains of H. influenzae should be considered resistant to cefaclor despite apparent in vitro susceptibility to this agent.

Antibacterial Activity

Cefaclor has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Gram-positive Bacteria

Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin susceptible only)

Coagulase negative staphylococci (methicillin susceptible only)

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes (group A β-hemolytic streptococci)

Gram-negative Bacteria

Escherichia coli

Haemophilus influenzae (excluding β-lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant strains)

Klebsiella spp.

Proteus mirabilis

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint of cefaclor. However, the safety and effectiveness of cefaclor in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well-controlled trials.

Gram-negative Bacteria

Citrobacter diversus

Moraxella catarrhalis

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Anaerobic Bacteria

Bacteroides spp.

Peptococcus spp.

Peptostreptococcus spp.

Propionibacterium acnes

Susceptibility Test Methods

For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Cefaclor is indicated in the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms:

Otitis media caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, staphylococci, and Streptococcus pyogenes

Note: β -lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains of Haemophilus influenzae should be considered resistant to cefaclor despite apparent in vitro susceptibility of some BLNAR strains.

Lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae, and Streptococcus pyogenes

Note: β -lactamase-negative, ampicillin-resistant (BLNAR) strains of Haemophilus influenzae should be considered resistant to cefaclor despite apparent in vitro susceptibility of some BLNAR strains.

Pharyngitis and Tonsillitis, caused by Streptococcus pyogenes

Note: Penicillin is the usual drug of choice in the treatment and prevention of streptococcal infections, including the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever. Cefaclor is generally effective in the eradication of streptococci from the nasopharynx; however, substantial data establishing the efficacy of cefaclor in the subsequent prevention of rheumatic fever are not available at present.

Urinary tract infections, including pyelonephritis and cystitis, caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella spp., and coagulase-negative staphylococci

Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus pyogenes

Appropriate culture and susceptibility studies should be performed to determine susceptibility of the causative organism to cefaclor.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Cefaclor for Oral Suspension and other antibacterial drugs, Cefaclor for Oral Suspension should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Cefaclor is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.

WARNINGS

BEFORE THERAPY WITH CEFACLOR IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFACLOR, CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN- SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-HYPERSENSITIVITY AMONG β-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY.

IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CEFACLOR OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS, INTRAVENOUS ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.

Antibiotics, including cefaclor, should be administered cautiously to any patient who has demonstrated some form of allergy, particularly to drugs.

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Cefaclor for Oral Suspension, USP, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin- producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

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