CEFADROXIL- cefadroxil capsule
Denton Pharma, Inc. DBA Northwind Pharmaceuticals
Rx only To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of cefadroxil and other antibacterial drugs, cefadroxil should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Cefadroxil, USP is a semisynthetic cephalosporin antibiotic intended for oral administration. It is a white to yellowish-white crystalline powder. It is soluble in water and it is acid-stable. It is chemically designated as 5-Thia-1-azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylic acid, 7-[[amino(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetyl]amino]-3-methyl-8-oxo-, monohydrate, [6R-[6α,7β(R*)]]-. It has the formula C 16 H 17 N 3 O 5 S · H 2 O and the molecular weight of 381.40. It has the following structural formula:
Cefadroxil capsules contain the following inactive ingredients: Lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, FD&C Blue No.1, D&C Red No.28, FD&C Red No. 40, titanium dioxide, gelatin, sodium lauryl sulphate, and edible black ink (black iron oxide).
Cefadroxil is rapidly absorbed after oral administration. Following single doses of 500 mg and 1000 mg, average peak serum concentrations were approximately 16 and 28 mcg/mL, respectively. Measurable levels were present 12 hours after administration. Over 90% of the drug is excreted unchanged in the urine within 24 hours. Peak urine concentrations are approximately 1800 mcg/mL during the period following a single 500 mg oral dose. Increases in dosage generally produce a proportionate increase in cefadroxil urinary concentration. The urine antibiotic concentration, following a 1 g dose, was maintained well above the MIC of susceptible urinary pathogens for 20 to 22 hours.
In vitro tests demonstrate that the cephalosporins are bactericidal because of their inhibition of cell-wall synthesis. Cefadroxil has been shown to be active against the following organisms both
in vitro and in clinical infections (see
INDICATIONS AND USAGE):
Staphylococci, including penicillinase-producing strains
Streptococcus (Diplococcus) pneumoniae
Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis
Note: Most strains of Enterococcus faecalis (formerly Streptococcus faecalis) and Enterococcus faecium (formerly Streptococcus faecium) are resistant to cefadroxil. It is not active against most strains of Enterobacter species, Morganella morganii (formerly Proteus morganii), and P. vulgaris. It has no activity against Pseudomonas species and Acinetobacter calcoaceticus (formerly Mima and Herellea species).
Susceptibility Testing For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.
Cefadroxil is indicated for the treatment of patients with infection caused by susceptible strains of the designated organisms in the following diseases:
Urinary tract infections caused by E. coli, P. mirabilis, and Klebsiella species.
Skin and skin structure infections caused by staphylococci and/or streptococci.
Pharyngitis and/or tonsillitis caused by Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A beta-hemolytic streptococci).
Note: Only penicillin by the intramuscular route of administration has been shown to be effective in the prophylaxis of rheumatic fever. Cefadroxil is generally effective in the eradication of streptococci from the oropharynx. However, data establishing the efficacy of cefadroxil for the prophylaxis of subsequent rheumatic fever are not available.
Note: Culture and susceptibility tests should be initiated prior to and during therapy. Renal function studies should be performed when indicated. To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of cefadroxil and other antibacterial drugs, cefadroxil should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
Cefadroxil is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin group of antibiotics.
BEFORE THERAPY WITH CEFADROXIL IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEFADROXIL, CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS, OR OTHER DRUGS. IF THIS PRODUCT IS TO BE GIVEN TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS, CAUTION SHOULD BE EXERCISED BECAUSE CROSS-SENSITIVITY AMONG BETA-LACTAM ANTIBIOTICS HAS BEEN CLEARLY DOCUMENTED AND MAY OCCUR IN UP TO 10% OF PATIENTS WITH A HISTORY OF PENICILLIN ALLERGY.
IF AN ALLERGIC REACTION TO CEFADROXIL OCCURS, DISCONTINUE THE DRUG. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE TREATMENT WITH EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES, INCLUDING OXYGEN, INTRAVENOUS FLUIDS, INTRAVENOUS ANTIHISTAMINES, CORTICOSTEROIDS, PRESSOR AMINES, AND AIRWAY MANAGEMENT, AS CLINICALLY INDICATED.
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including cefadroxil, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Cefadroxil should be used with caution in the presence of markedly impaired renal function (creatinine clearance rate of less than 50 mL/min/1.73 m
DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.) In patients with known or suspected renal impairment, careful clinical observation and appropriate laboratory studies should be made prior to and during therapy.
Prescribing cefadroxil in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
Prolonged use of cefadroxil may result in the overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken. Cefadroxil should be prescribed with caution in individuals with history of gastrointestinal disease particularly colitis.
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