CEFIXIME (Page 2 of 5)
2.3 Renal Impairment
Cefixime may be administered in the presence of impaired renal function. Normal dose and schedule may be employed in patients with creatinine clearances of 60 mL/min or greater. Refer to Table 2 for dose adjustments for adults with renal impairment. Neither hemodialysis nor peritoneal dialysis removes significant amounts of drug from the body.
|Renal Dysfunction||Cefixime for Oral Suspension|
|Creatinine Clearance (mL/min)||100 mg / 5 mL||200 mg / 5 mL|
|Dose/Day (mL)||Dose/Day (mL)|
|60 or greater||Normal dose||Normal dose|
|21 to 59*OR renal hemodialysis *||13||6.5|
|20 or less OR continuous peritoneal dialysis||8.6||4.4|
2.4 Reconstitution Directions for Oral Suspension
|Strength||Bottle Size||Reconstitution Directions|
|200 mg/5 mL||75 mL||To reconstitute, suspend with 51 mL water. Method: Tap the bottle several times to loosen powder contents prior to reconstitution. Add approximately half the total amount of water for reconstitution and shake well. Add the remainder of water and shake well.|
|100 mg/5 mL and 200 mg/5 mL||50 mL||To reconstitute, suspend with 34 mL water. Method: Tap the bottle several times to loosen powder contents prior to reconstitution. Add approximately half the total amount of water for reconstitution and shake well. Add the remainder of water and shake well.|
After reconstitution, the suspension may be kept for 14 days either at room temperature, or under refrigeration, without significant loss of potency. Keep tightly closed. Shake well before using. Discard unused portion after 14 days.
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
Cefixime for oral suspension USP is available for oral administration in a powder for oral suspension, when reconstituted, provides either 100 mg/5 mL or 200 mg/5 mL of cefixime as trihydrate. The powder has an off white to pale yellow color and is strawberry flavored.
Cefixime capsule is available for oral administration as capsules which provide 400 mg of cefixime as trihydrate. These are size “0” capsules with pink opaque cap and pink opaque body, imprinted with “LU” on the cap and “U43” on the body in black ink. Capsules contain white to yellowish white granular powder.
Cefixime is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to cefixime or other cephalosporins.
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Hypersensitivity Reactions
Anaphylactic/anaphylactoid reactions (including shock and fatalities) have been reported with the use of cefixime.
Before therapy with cefixime is instituted, careful inquiry should be made to determine whether the patient has had previous hypersensitivity reactions to cephalosporins, penicillins, or other drugs. If this product is to be given to penicillin-sensitive patients, caution should be exercised because cross hypersensitivity among beta-lactam antibacterial drugs has been clearly documented and may occur in up to 10% of patients with a history of penicillin allergy. If an allergic reaction to cefixime occurs, discontinue the drug.
5.2 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including cefixime, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.
C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing isolates of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibacterial drug use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.
If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibacterial drug use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibacterial drug treatment of C. difficile, and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
5.3 Dose Adjustment in Renal Impairment
The dose of cefixime should be adjusted in patients with renal impairment as well as those undergoing continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis (CAPD) and hemodialysis (HD). Patients on dialysis should be monitored carefully [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
5.4 Coagulation Effects
Cephalosporins, including cefixime, may be associated with a fall in prothrombin activity. Those at risk include patients with renal or hepatic impairment, or poor nutritional state, as well as patients receiving a protracted course of antimicrobial therapy, and patients previously stabilized on anticoagulant therapy. Prothrombin time should be monitored in patients at risk and exogenous vitamin K administered as indicated.
5.5 Development of Drug-Resistant Bacteria
Prescribing cefixime in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
The most commonly seen adverse reactions in U.S. trials of the tablet formulation were gastrointestinal events, which were reported in 30% of adult patients on either the twice daily or the once daily regimen. Five percent (5%) of patients in the U.S. clinical trials discontinued therapy because of drug-related adverse reactions. Individual adverse reactions included diarrhea 16%, loose or frequent stools 6%, abdominal pain 3%, nausea 7%, dyspepsia 3%, and flatulence 4%. The incidence of gastrointestinal adverse reactions, including diarrhea and loose stools, in pediatric patients receiving the suspension was comparable to the incidence seen in adult patients receiving tablets.
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