Cefoxitin

CEFOXITIN- cefoxitin sodium injection, powder, for solution
Hikma Pharmaceuticals USA Inc.

PHARMACY BULK PACKAGENOT FOR DIRECT INFUSION

Rx only

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Cefoxitin for Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Cefoxitin for Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.

DESCRIPTION

Cefoxitin for Injection, USP is a semi-synthetic, broad-spectrum cepha antibiotic sealed under nitrogen for intravenous administration. It is derived from cephamycin C, which is produced by Streptomyces lactamdurans. Its chemical name is sodium (6R,7S)-3-(hydroxymethyl)-7-methoxy-8-oxo-7-[2-(2-thienyl)acetamido]-5-thia-1-azabicyclo [4.2.0] oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate carbamate (ester).

The molecular formula is C16 H16 N3 NaO7 S2 , and the structural formula is:

new structure
(click image for full-size original)

Cefoxitin for injection contains approximately 53.8 mg (2.3 milliequivalents) of sodium per gram of cefoxitin activity. Solutions of Cefoxitin for Injection, USP range from colorless to light amber in color. The pH of freshly constituted solutions usually ranges from 4.2 to 7.0.

Each Pharmacy Bulk Package Bottle of Cefoxitin for Injection, USP contains sterile cefoxitin sodium, USP equivalent to 10 grams of cefoxitin.

This Pharmacy Bulk Package Bottle is a container of sterile preparation for intravenous use that contains many single doses. The contents are intended for use in a pharmacy admixture service and are restricted to the preparation of admixtures for intravenous infusion. AFTER RECONSTITUTION FURTHER DILUTION IS REQUIRED BEFORE USE. NOT FOR DIRECT INFUSION.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

Clinical Pharmacology

Following an intravenous dose of 1 gram, serum concentrations were 110 mcg/mL at 5 minutes, declining to less than 1 mcg/mL at 4 hours. The half-life after an intravenous dose is 41 to 59 minutes. Approximately 85 percent of cefoxitin is excreted unchanged by the kidneys over a 6-hour period, resulting in high urinary concentrations. Probenecid slows tubular excretion and produces higher serum levels and increases the duration of measurable serum concentrations.

Cefoxitin passes into pleural and joint fluids and is detectable in antibacterial concentrations in bile. In a published study of geriatric patients ranging in age from 64 to 88 years with normal renal function for their age (creatinine clearance ranging from 31.5 to 174.0 mL/min), the half-life for cefoxitin ranged from 51 to 90 minutes, resulting in higher plasma concentrations than in younger adults. These changes were attributed to decreased renal function associated with the aging process.

Microbiology

Mechanism of Action

Cefoxitin is a bactericidal agent that acts by inhibition of bacterial cell wall synthesis. Cefoxitin has activity in the presence of some beta-lactamases, both penicillinases and cephalosporinases, of Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria.

Mechanism of Resistance

Resistance to cefoxitin is primarily through hydrolysis by beta-lactamase, alteration of penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs), and decreased permeability.

Cefoxitin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section:

Gram-positive bacteria

Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible isolates only)

Staphylococcus epidermidis ( methicillin-susceptible isolates only)

Streptococcus agalactiae

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Gram-negative bacteria

Escherichia coli

Haemophilus influenzae

Klebsiella spp.

Morganella morganii

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus vulgaris

Providencia spp.

Anaerobic bacteria

Clostridium spp.

Peptococcus niger

Peptostreptococcus spp.

Bacteroides spp.

The following in vitro data are available,but their clinical significance is unknown.

At least 90 percent of the following microorganisms exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for cefoxitin. However, the efficacy of cefoxitin in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Gram-negative bacteria

Eikenella corrodens (non-β-lactamase producers)

Anaerobic bacteria

Clostridium perfringens

Prevotella bivia

Susceptibility Test Methods

For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: https://www.fda.gov/STIC.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Treatment

Cefoxitin for Injection, USP is indicated for the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the diseases listed below.

(1) Lower respiratory tract infections, including pneumonia and lung abscess, caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, other streptococci (excluding enterococci, e.g., Enterococcus faecalis [formerly Streptococcus faecalis ]), Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Haemophilus influenzae, and Bacteroides species.

(2) Urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii, Proteus vulgaris and Providencia species (including P. rettgeri).

(3) Intra-abdominal infections, including peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess, caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, Bacteroides species including Bacteroides fragilis, and Clostridium species.

(4) Gynecological infections, including endometritis, pelvic cellulitis, and pelvic inflammatory disease caused by Escherichia coli, Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including penicillinase-producing strains), Bacteroides species including B. fragilis, Clostridium species, Peptococcus niger, Peptostreptococcus species and Streptococcus agalactiae. Cefoxitin for Injection, USP like cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when Cefoxitin for Injection, USP is used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and C. trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate anti-chlamydial coverage should be added.

(5) Septicemia caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase­-producing strains), Escherichia coli, Klebsiella species, and Bacteroides species including B. fragilis.

(6) Bone and joint infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains).

(7) Skin and skin structure infections caused by Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase­-producing strains), Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes and other streptococci (excluding enterococci e.g., Enterococcus faecalis [formerly Streptococcus faecalis ]), Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella species, Bacteroides species including B. fragilis, Clostridium species, Peptococcus niger, and Peptostreptococcus species.

Appropriate culture and susceptibility studies should be performed to determine the susceptibility of the causative organisms to cefoxitin. Therapy may be started while awaiting the results of these studies.

In randomized comparative studies, cefoxitin and cephalothin were comparably safe and effective in the management of infections caused by gram-positive cocci and gram-negative rods susceptible to the cephalosporins. Cefoxitin Injection, USP has a high degree of stability in the presence of bacterial beta-lactamases, both penicillinases and cephalosporinases.

Many infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic gram-negative bacteria resistant to some cephalosporins respond to cefoxitin. Similarly, many infections caused by aerobic and anaerobic bacteria resistant to some penicillin antibiotics (ampicillin, carbenicillin, penicillin G) respond to treatment with Cefoxitin Injection, USP. Many infections caused by mixtures of susceptible aerobic and anaerobic bacteria respond to treatment with Cefoxitin Injection, USP.

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