Ceftriaxone (Page 2 of 6)

Interaction with Calcium

Two in vitro studies, one using adult plasma and the other neonatal plasma from umbilical cord blood, have been carried out to assess interaction of ceftriaxone and calcium. Ceftriaxone concentrations up to 1 mM (in excess of concentrations achieved in vivo following administration of 2 grams ceftriaxone infused over 30 minutes) were used in combination with calcium concentrations up to 12 mM (48 mg/dL). Recovery of ceftriaxone from plasma was reduced with calcium concentrations of 6 mM (24 mg/dL) or higher in adult plasma or 4 mM (16 mg/dL) or higher in neonatal plasma. This may be reflective of ceftriaxone-calcium precipitation.

Microbiology

The bactericidal activity of ceftriaxone results from inhibition of cell wall synthesis. Ceftriaxone has a high degree of stability in the presence of beta-lactamases, both penicillinases and cephalosporinases, of gram-negative and gram-positive bacteria.

In an in vitro study antagonistic effects have been observed with the combination of chloramphenicol and ceftriaxone.

Ceftriaxone has been shown to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms, both in vitro and in clinical infections described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section.

Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms:

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus

Enterobacter aerogenes

Enterobacter cloacae

Escherichia coli

Haemophilus influenzae (including ampicillin-resistant and beta-lactamase producing strains)

Haemophilus parainfluenzae

Klebsiella oxytoca

Klebsiella pneumoniae

Moraxella catarrhalis (including beta-lactamase producing strains)

Morganella morganii

Neisseria gonorrhoeae (including penicillinase- and nonpenicillinase-producing strains)

Neisseria meningitidis

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus vulgaris

Serratia marcescens

Ceftriaxone is also active against many strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

NOTE: Many strains of the above organisms that are resistant to multiple antibiotics, e.g. , penicillins, cephalosporins, and aminoglycosides, are susceptible to ceftriaxone.

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms:

Staphylococcus aureus (including penicillinase-producing strains)

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus pyogenes

Viridans group streptococci

NOTE: Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are resistant to cephalosporins, including ceftriaxone. Most strains of Group D streptococci and enterococci, e.g. , Enterococcus (Streptococcus) faecalis , are resistant.

Anaerobic microorganisms:

Bacteroides fragilis

Clostridium species

Peptostreptococcus species

NOTE: Most strains of Clostridium difficile are resistant.

The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. Ceftriaxone exhibits in vitro minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of ≤1 mcg/mL or less against most strains of the following microorganisms, however, the safety and effectiveness of ceftriaxone in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms have not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.

Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms:

Citrobacter diversus

Citrobacter freundii

Providencia species (including Providencia rettgeri)

Salmonella species (including Salmonella typhi)

Shigella species

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms:

Streptococcus agalactiae

Anaerobic microorganisms:

Prevotella (Bacteroides) bivius

Porphyromonas (Bacteroides) melaninogenicus

Susceptibility Tests

For specific information regarding susceptibility test interpretive criteria and associated test methods and quality control standards recognized by FDA for this drug, please see: http://www.fda.gov/STIC.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE

Before instituting treatment with Ceftriaxone Injection, USP, appropriate specimens should be obtained for isolation of the causative organism and for determination of its susceptibility to the drug. Therapy may be instituted prior to obtaining results of susceptibility testing.

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Ceftriaxone Injection, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Ceftriaxone Injection, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

Ceftriaxone Injection, USP is indicated for the treatment of the following infections when caused by susceptible organisms:

LOWER RESPIRATORY TRACT INFECTIONS caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Proteus mirabilis or Serratia marcescens.

ACUTE BACTERIAL OTITIS MEDIA caused by Streptococcus pneumoniae, Haemophilus influenzae (including beta-lactamase producing strains) or Moraxella catarrhalis (including beta-lactamase producing strains).

NOTE: In one study lower clinical cure rates were observed with a single dose of ceftriaxone compared to 10 days of oral therapy. In a second study comparable cure rates were observed between single dose ceftriaxone and the comparator. The potentially lower clinical cure rate of ceftriaxone should be balanced against the potential advantages of parenteral therapy.

SKIN AND SKIN STRUCTURE INFECTIONS caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Streptococcus pyogenes , Viridans group streptococci, Escherichia coli, Enterobacter cloacae, Klebsiella oxytoca, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Proteus mirabilis, Morganella morganii ,* Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Serratia marcescens, Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Bacteroides fragilis * or Peptostreptococcus species.

URINARY TRACT INFECTIONS (complicated and uncomplicated) caused by Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Morganella morganii or Klebsiella pneumoniae.

UNCOMPLICATED GONORRHEA (cervical/urethral and rectal) caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae , including both penicillinase-and nonpenicillinase-producing strains, and pharyngeal gonorrhea caused by nonpenicillinase-producing strains of Neisseria gonorrhoeae.

PELVIC INFLAMMATORY DISEASE caused by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Ceftriaxone, like other cephalosporins, has no activity against Chlamydia trachomatis. Therefore, when cephalosporins are used in the treatment of patients with pelvic inflammatory disease and Chlamydia trachomatis is one of the suspected pathogens, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added.

BACTERIAL SEPTICEMIA caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Haemophilus influenzae or Klebsiella pneumoniae.

BONE AND JOINT INFECTIONS caused by Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae or Enterobacter species.

INTRA-ABDOMINAL INFECTIONS caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Bacteroides fragilis, Clostridium species (Note: most strains of Clostridium difficile are resistant) or Peptostreptococcus species.

MENINGITIS caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Neisseria meningitidis or Streptococcus pneumoniae. Ceftriaxone has also been used successfully in a limited number of cases of meningitis and shunt infection caused by Staphylococcus epidermidis * and Escherichia coli.*

*Efficacy for this organism in this organ system was studied in fewer than ten infections.

SURGICAL PROPHYLAXIS: The preoperative administration of a single 1 gm dose of ceftriaxone may reduce the incidence of postoperative infections in patients undergoing surgical procedures classified as contaminated or potentially contaminated (e.g. , vaginal or abdominal hysterectomy or cholecystectomy for chronic calculous cholecystitis in high-risk patients, such as those over 70 years of age, with acute cholecystitis not requiring therapeutic antimicrobials, obstructive jaundice or common duct bile stones) and in surgical patients for whom infection at the operative site would present serious risk (e.g. , during coronary artery bypass surgery). Although ceftriaxone has been shown to have been as effective as cefazolin in the prevention of infection following coronary artery bypass surgery, no placebo-controlled trials have been conducted to evaluate any cephalosporin antibiotic in the prevention of infection following coronary artery bypass surgery.

When administered prior to surgical procedures for which it is indicated, a single 1 gm dose of ceftriaxone provides protection from most infections due to susceptible organisms throughout the course of the procedure.

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