Ceftriaxone (Page 3 of 6)

CONTRAINDICATIONS

Ceftriaxone Injection, USP is contraindicated in patients with known allergy to the cephalosporin class of antibiotics. Solutions containing dextrose may be contraindicated in patients with known allergy to corn or corn products.

Neonates (≤28 days)

Hyperbilirubinemic neonates, especially prematures, should not be treated with Ceftriaxone Injection, USP. In vitro studies have shown that ceftriaxone can displace bilirubin from its binding to serum albumin, leading to a possible risk of bilirubin encephalopathy in these patients.

Ceftriaxone Injection, USP is contraindicated in neonates if they require (or are expected to require) treatment with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition because of the risk of precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, WARNINGS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

A small number of cases of fatal outcomes in which a crystalline material was observed in the lungs and kidneys at autopsy have been reported in neonates receiving ceftriaxone and calcium-containing fluids. In some of these cases, the same intravenous infusion line was used for both ceftriaxone and calcium-containing fluids and in some a precipitate was observed in the intravenous infusion line. At least one fatality has been reported in a neonate in whom ceftriaxone and calcium-containing fluids were administered at different time points via different intravenous lines; no crystalline material was observed at autopsy in this neonate. There have been no similar reports in patients other than neonates.

WARNINGS

Hypersensitivity

BEFORE THERAPY WITH CEFTRIAXONE INJECTION, USP IS INSTITUTED, CAREFUL INQUIRY SHOULD BE MADE TO DETERMINE WHETHER THE PATIENT HAS HAD PREVIOUS HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS TO CEPHALOSPORINS, PENICILLINS OR OTHER DRUGS. THIS PRODUCT SHOULD BE GIVEN CAUTIOUSLY TO PENICILLIN-SENSITIVE PATIENTS. ANTIBIOTICS SHOULD BE ADMINISTERED WITH CAUTION TO ANY PATIENT WHO HAS DEMONSTRATED SOME FORM OF ALLERGY, PARTICULARLY TO DRUGS. SERIOUS ACUTE HYPERSENSITIVITY REACTIONS MAY REQUIRE THE USE OF SUBCUTANEOUS EPINEPHRINE AND OTHER EMERGENCY MEASURES.

As with other cephalosporins, anaphylactic reactions with fatal outcome have been reported, even if a patient is not known to be allergic or previously exposed.

Interaction with Calcium-Containing Products

Do not further dilute ceftriaxone injection with products containing calcium, such as Ringer’s solution or Hartmann’s solution, because a precipitate can form. Precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium can also occur when ceftriaxone is mixed with calcium-containing solutions in the same IV administration line. Ceftriaxone must not be administered simultaneously with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition via a Y-site. However, in patients other than neonates, ceftriaxone and calcium-containing solutions may be administered sequentially of one another if the infusion lines are thoroughly flushed between infusions with a compatible fluid. In vitro studies using adult and neonatal plasma from umbilical cord blood demonstrated that neonates have an increased risk of precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY, CONTRAINDICATIONS and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Neurological Adverse Reactions

Serious neurological adverse reactions have been reported during postmarketing surveillance with ceftriaxone use. These reactions include encephalopathy (disturbance of consciousness including somnolence, lethargy, and confusion), seizures, myoclonus, and non-convulsive status epilepticus (see ADVERSE REACTIONS). Some cases occurred in patients with severe renal impairment who did not receive appropriate dosage adjustment. However, in other cases, neurological adverse reactions occurred in patients receiving an appropriate dosage adjustment. The neurological adverse reactions were reversible and resolved after discontinuation. If neurological adverse reactions associated with Ceftriaxone Injection therapy occur, discontinue Ceftriaxone Injection and institute appropriate supportive measures. Make appropriate dosage adjustments in patients with severe renal impairment (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).

Clostridium difficile

Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including Ceftriaxone Injection, USP, and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C. difficile.

C. difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C. difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents.

If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C. difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C. difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.

Hemolytic Anemia

An immune mediated hemolytic anemia has been observed in patients receiving cephalosporin class antibacterials including ceftriaxone. Severe cases of hemolytic anemia, including fatalities, have been reported during treatment in both adults and children. If a patient develops anemia while on ceftriaxone, the diagnosis of a cephalosporin associated anemia should be considered and ceftriaxone stopped until the etiology is determined.

PRECAUTIONS

General

Prescribing Ceftriaxone Injection, USP in the absence of a proven or strongly suspected bacterial infection or a prophylactic indication is unlikely to provide benefit to the patient and increases the risk of the development of drug-resistant bacteria.

Although transient elevations of BUN and serum creatinine have been observed, at the recommended dosages, the nephrotoxic potential of Ceftriaxone Injection, USP is similar to that of other cephalosporins.

Ceftriaxone is excreted via both biliary and renal excretion (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY). Therefore, patients with mild to moderate renal impairment normally require no adjustment in dosage when usual doses of Ceftriaxone Injection, USP are administered.

Dosage adjustments should not be necessary in patients with hepatic dysfunction; however, in patients with both hepatic dysfunction and significant renal disease, caution should be exercised and the Ceftriaxone Injection, USP dosage should not exceed 2 gm daily.

Alterations in prothrombin times have occurred rarely in patients treated with ceftriaxone. Patients with impaired vitamin K synthesis or low vitamin K stores (e.g. , chronic hepatic disease and malnutrition) may require monitoring of prothrombin time during Ceftriaxone Injection, USP treatment. Vitamin K administration (10 mg weekly) may be necessary if the prothrombin time is prolonged before or during therapy.

Prolonged use of Ceftriaxone Injection, USP may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms. Careful observation of the patient is essential. If superinfection occurs during therapy, appropriate measures should be taken.

Ceftriaxone Injection, USP should be prescribed with caution in individuals with a history of gastrointestinal disease, especially colitis.

There have been reports of sonographic abnormalities in the gallbladder of patients treated with ceftriaxone; some of these patients also had symptoms of gallbladder disease. These abnormalities appear on sonography as an echo without acoustical shadowing suggesting sludge or as an echo with acoustical shadowing which may be misinterpreted as gallstones. The chemical nature of the sonographically detected material has been determined to be predominantly a ceftriaxone-calcium salt. The condition appears to be transient and reversible upon discontinuation of ceftriaxone and institution of conservative management. Therefore, Ceftriaxone Injection, USP should be discontinued in patients who develop signs and symptoms suggestive of gallbladder disease and/or the sonographic findings described above.

Cases of pancreatitis, possibly secondary to biliary obstruction, have been reported rarely in patients treated with ceftriaxone. Most patients presented with risk factors for biliary stasis and biliary sludge (preceding major therapy, severe illness, total parenteral nutrition). A cofactor role of ceftriaxone related biliary precipitation cannot be ruled out.

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