Ceftriaxone (Page 5 of 7)

Teratogenic Effects:

Pregnancy Category B. Reproductive studies have been performed in mice and rats at doses up to 20 times the usual human dose and have no evidence of embryotoxicity, fetotoxicity or teratogenicity. In primates, no embryotoxicity or teratogenicity was demonstrated at a dose approximately 3 times the human dose.

There are, however, no adequate and well-controlled studies in pregnant women. Because animal reproductive studies are not always predictive of human response, this drug should be used during pregnancy only if clearly needed.

Nonteratogenic Effects:

In rats, in the Segment I (fertility and general reproduction) and Segment III (perinatal and postnatal) studies with intravenously administered ceftriaxone, no adverse effects were noted on various reproductive parameters during gestation and lactation, including postnatal growth, functional behavior and reproductive ability of the offspring, at doses of 586 mg/kg/day or less.

Nursing Mothers:

Low concentrations of ceftriaxone are excreted in human milk. Caution should be exercised when Ceftriaxone for Injection is administered to a nursing woman.

Pediatric Use:

Safety and effectiveness of Ceftriaxone for Injection in neonates, infants and pediatric patients have been established for the dosages described in the DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION section. In vitro studies have shown that ceftriaxone, like some other cephalosporins, can displace bilirubin from serum albumin. Ceftriaxone for Injection should not be administered to hyperbilirubinemic neonates, especially prematures (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Geriatric Use:

Of the total number of subjects in clinical studies of Ceftriaxone for Injection, 32% were 60 and over. No overall differences in safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger patients, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out.

The pharmacokinetics of ceftriaxone were only minimally altered in geriatric patients compared to healthy adult subjects and dosage adjustments are not necessary for geriatric patients with ceftriaxone dosages up to 2 grams per day (see CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY).

ADVERSE REACTIONS

Ceftriaxone for Injection is generally well tolerated. In clinical trials, the following adverse reactions, which were considered to be related to Ceftriaxone for Injection therapy or of uncertain etiology, were observed:

LOCAL REACTIONS — pain, induration and tenderness was 1% overall. Phlebitis was reported in <1% after IV administration. The incidence of warmth, tightness or induration was 17% (3/17) after IM administration of 350 mg/mL and 5% (1/20) after IM administration of 250 mg/mL.

HYPERSENSITIVITY — rash (1.7%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were pruritus, fever or chills.

HEMATOLOGIC — eosinophilia (6%), thrombocytosis (5.1%) and leukopenia (2.1%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were anemia, hemolytic anemia, neutropenia, lymphopenia, thrombocytopenia and prolongation of the prothrombin time.

GASTROINTESTINAL — diarrhea (2.7%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were nausea or vomiting, and dysgeusia. The onset of pseudomembranous colitis symptoms may occur during or after antibacterial treatment (see WARNINGS).

HEPATIC — elevations of SGOT (3.1%) or SGPT (3.3%). Less frequently reported (<1%) were elevations of alkaline phosphatase and bilirubin.

RENAL — elevations of the BUN (1.2%). Less frequently reported (< 1%) were elevations of creatinine and the presence of casts in the urine.

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM — headache or dizziness were reported occasionally (<1 %).

GENITOURINARY — moniliasis or vaginitis were reported occasionally (<1%).

MISCELLANEOUS — diaphoresis and flushing were reported occasionally (<1%).

Other rarely observed adverse reactions (< 0.1%) include abdominal pain, agranulocytosis, allergic pneumonitis, anaphylaxis, basophilia, biliary lithiasis, bronchospasm, colitis, dyspepsia, epistaxis, flatulence, gallbladder sludge, glycosuria, hematuria, jaundice, leukocytosis, lymphocytosis, monocytosis, nephrolithiasis, palpitations, a decrease in the prothrombin time, renal precipitations, seizures, and serum sickness.

Postmarketing Experience:

In addition to the adverse reactions reported during clinical trials, the following adverse experiences have been reported during clinical practice in patients treated with Ceftriaxone for Injection. Data are generally insufficient to allow an estimate of incidence or to establish causation.

A small number of cases of fatal outcomes in which a crystalline material was observed in the lungs and kidneys at autopsy have been reported in neonates receiving Ceftriaxone for Injection and calcium-containing fluids. In some of these cases, the same intravenous infusion line was used for both Ceftriaxone for Injection and calcium-containing fluids and in some a precipitate was observed in the intravenous infusion line. At least one fatality has been reported in a neonate in whom Ceftriaxone for Injection and calcium-containing fluids were administered at different time points via different intravenous lines; no crystalline material was observed at autopsy in this neonate. There have been no similar reports in patients other than neonates.

GASTROINTESTINAL — stomatitis and glossitis.

GENITOURINARY — oliguria.

DERMATOLOGIC — exanthema, allergic dermatitis, urticaria, edema. As with many medications, isolated cases of severe cutaneous adverse reactions (erythema multiforme, Stevens-Johnson syndrome or Lyell’s syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis) have been reported.

Cephalosporin Class Adverse Reactions

In addition to the adverse reactions listed above which have been observed in patients treated with ceftriaxone, the following adverse reactions and altered laboratory test results have been reported for cephalosporin class antibiotics:

Adverse Reactions: Allergic reactions, drug fever, serum sickness-like reaction, renal dysfunction, toxic nephropathy, reversible hyperactivity, hypertonia, hepatic dysfunction including cholestasis, aplastic anemia, hemorrhage, and superinfection.

Altered Laboratory Tests: Positive direct Coombs’ test, false-positive test for urinary glucose, and elevated LDH.

Several cephalosporins have been implicated in triggering seizures, particularly in patients with renal impairment when the dosage was not reduced (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). If seizures associated with drug therapy occur, the drug should be discontinued. Anticonvulsant therapy can be given if clinically indicated.

OVERDOSAGE

In the case of overdosage, drug concentration would not be reduced by hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis. There is no specific antidote. Treatment of overdosage should be symptomatic.

DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

Ceftriaxone for Injection may be administered intravenously or intramuscularly. However, the intent of this Pharmacy Bulk Package is for the preparation of solutions for intravenous infusion only. Ceftriaxone should be administered intravenously by infusion over a period of 30 minutes.

Do not use diluents containing calcium, such as Ringer’s solution or Hartmann’s solution, to reconstitute Ceftriaxone for Injection vials or to further dilute a reconstituted vial for IV administration because a precipitate can form. Precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium can also occur when Ceftriaxone for Injection is mixed with calcium-containing solutions in the same IV administration line. Ceftriaxone for Injection must not be administered simultaneously with calcium-containing IV solution, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition via a Y-site. Howe ve r , in patients in other than neonates, Ceftriaxone for Injection and calcium-containing solutions may be administered sequentially of one another if the infusion lines are thoroughly flushed between infusions with a compatible fluid (see WARNINGS ).

There have been no reports of an interaction between ceftriaxone and oral calcium-containing products or interaction between intramuscular ceftriaxone and calcium-containing products (IV or oral).

NEONATES: Hyperbilirubinemic neonates, especially prematures, should not be treated with Ceftriaxone for Injection (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

Ceftriaxone is contraindicated in neonates if they require (or are expected to require) treatment with calcium-containing IV solutions, including continuous calcium-containing infusions such as parenteral nutrition because of the risk of precipitation of ceftriaxone-calcium (see CONTRAINDICATIONS).

PEDIATRIC PATIENTS: For the treatment of skin and skin structure infections, the recommended total daily dose is 50 to 75 mg/kg given once a day (or in equally divided doses twice a day). The total daily dose should not exceed 2 grams.

For the treatment of acute bacterial otitis media, a single intramuscular dose of 50 mg/kg (not to exceed 1 gram) is recommended (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE).

For the treatment of serious miscellaneous infections other than meningitis, the recommended total daily dose is 50 to 75 mg/kg, given in divided doses every 12 hours. The total daily dose should not exceed 2 grams.

In the treatment of meningitis, it is recommended that the initial therapeutic dose be 100 mg/kg (not to exceed 4 grams). Thereafter, a total daily dose of 100 mg/kg/day (not to exceed 4 grams daily) is recommended. The daily dose may be administered once a day (or in equally divided doses every 12 hours). The usual duration of therapy is 7 to 14 days.

ADULTS: The usual adult daily dose is 1 to 2 grams given once a day (or in equally divided doses twice a day) depending on the type and severity of infection. The total daily dose should not exceed 4 grams.

If Chlamydia trachomatis is a suspected pathogen, appropriate antichlamydial coverage should be added, because ceftriaxone sodium has no activity against this organism.

For the treatment of uncomplicated gonococcal infections, a single intramuscular dose of 250 mg is recommended.

For preoperative use (surgical prophylaxis), a single dose of 1 gram administered intravenously 1/2 to 2 hours before surgery is recommended.

Generally, Ceftriaxone for Injection therapy should be continued for at least 2 days after the signs and symptoms of infection have disappeared. The usual duration of therapy is 4 to 14 days; in complicated infections, longer therapy may be required.

When treating infections caused by Streptococcus pyogenes , therapy should be continued for at least 10 days.

No dosage adjustment is necessary for patients with impairment of renal or hepatic function.

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