CEFUROXIME AXETIL FOR ORAL SUSPENSION- cefuroxime axetil suspension
Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of cefuroxime axetil for oral suspension and other antibacterial drugs, cefuroxime axetil for oral suspension should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Chemically, cefuroxime axetil, the 1-(acetyloxy) ethyl ester of cefuroxime, is (RS)-1- hydroxyethyl (6R ,7R)-7-[2-(2-furyl)glyoxylamido]-3-(hydroxymethyl)-8-oxo-5-thia-1- azabicyclo[4.2.0]oct-2-ene-2-carboxylate, 72 -(Z)-(O -methyl-oxime), 1-acetate 3-carbamate. Its molecular formula is C20 H22 N4 O10 S, and it has a molecular weight of 510.48.
Cefuroxime axetil for oral suspension USP, when reconstituted with water, provides the equivalent of 125 mg or 250 mg of cefuroxime (as cefuroxime axetil) per 5 mL of suspension. Cefuroxime axetil USP for oral suspension contains the following inactive ingredients: aspartame, hypromellose phthalate, mannitol, methacrylic acid copolymer, monosodium citrate, peppermint flavor, silicon dioxide, sodium benzoate, sodium chloride, sucrose, tutti frutti flavor, xanthan gum.
Absorption and Metabolism: After oral administration, cefuroxime axetil is absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract and rapidly hydrolyzed by nonspecific esterases in the intestinal mucosa and blood to cefuroxime. Cefuroxime is subsequently distributed throughout the extracellular fluids. The axetil moiety is metabolized to acetaldehyde and acetic acid.
|Dose† (Cefuroxime Equivalent)||n||Peak Plasma Concentration (mcg/mL)||Time of Peak Plasma Concentration (hr)||Mean Elimination Half-Life (hr)||AUC (mcg-hr mL)|
Comparative Pharmacokinetic Properties: A 250 mg/5 mL dose of cefuroxime axetil for oral suspension is bioequivalent to 2 times 125 mg/5 mL dose of cefuroxime axetil for oral suspension when administered with food (see Table 2). Cefuroxime axetil for oral suspension was not bioequivalent to cefuroxime axetil tablets when tested in healthy adults. The tablet and powder for oral suspension formulations are NOT substitutable on a milligram-per-milligram basis. The area under the curve for the suspension averaged 91% of that for the tablet, and the peak plasma concentration for the suspension averaged 71% of the peak plasma concentration of the tablets. Therefore, the safety and effectiveness of both the tablet and oral suspension formulations had to be established in separate clinical trials.
|Dose (Cefuroxime Equivalent)||Peak Plasma Concentration (mcg/mL)||Time of Peak Plasma Concentration (hr)||Mean Elimination Half-Life (hr)||AUC (mcg-hr mL)|
|250 mg/5 mL||2.23||3||1.40||8.92|
|2 x 125 mg/5 mL||2.37||3||1.44||9.75|
Food Effect on Pharmacokinetics: All pharmacokinetic and clinical effectiveness and safety studies in pediatric patients using the suspension formulation were conducted in the fed state. No data are available on the absorption kinetics of the suspension formulation when administered to fasted pediatric patients.
Renal Excretion: Cefuroxime is excreted unchanged in the urine; in adults, approximately 50% of the administered dose is recovered in the urine within 12 hours. The pharmacokinetics of cefuroxime in the urine of pediatric patients have not been studied at this time. Until further data are available, the renal pharmacokinetic properties of cefuroxime axetil established in adults should not be extrapolated to pediatric patients.
Because cefuroxime is renally excreted, the serum half-life is prolonged in patients with reduced renal function. In a study of 20 elderly patients (mean age = 83.9 years) having a mean creatinine clearance of 34.9 mL/min, the mean serum elimination half-life was 3.5 hours. Despite the lower elimination of cefuroxime in geriatric patients, dosage adjustment based on age is not necessary (see PRECAUTIONS: Geriatric Use).
Cefuroxime has bactericidal activity against a wide range of common pathogens, including many beta-lactamase-producing strains. Cefuroxime is stable to many bacterial beta-lactamases, especially plasmid-mediated enzymes that are commonly found in enterobacteriaceae.
Cefuroxime has been demonstrated to be active against most strains of the following microorganisms both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE section).
Cefuroxime exhibits in vitro minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 4 mcg/mL or less (systemic susceptible breakpoint) against most (> 90%) strains of the following microorganisms; however, the safety and effectiveness of cefuroxime in treating clinical infections due to these microorganisms have not been established in adequate and well-controlled trials.
NOTE: Listeria monocytogenes and certain strains of enterococci, e.g., Enterococcus faecalis (formerly Streptococcus faecalis), are resistant to cefuroxime. Methicillin-resistant staphylococci are resistant to cefuroxime.
NOTE: Pseudomonas spp., Campylobacter spp., Acinetobacter calcoaceticus , Legionella spp., and most strains of Serratia spp. and Proteus vulgaris are resistant to most first- and second-generation cephalosporins. Some strains of Morganella morganii , Enterobacter cloacae , and Citrobacter spp. have been shown by in vitro tests to be resistant to cefuroxime and other cephalosporins.
Susceptibility Tests: Dilution Techniques: Quantitative methods that are used to determine MICs provide reproducible estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure uses a standardized dilution method1 (broth, agar, or microdilution) or equivalent with cefuroxime powder. The MIC values obtained should be interpreted according to the following criteria:
|≤ 4||(S) Susceptible|
|8 to16||(I) Intermediate|
|≥ 32||(R) Resistant|
A report of “Susceptible” indicates that the pathogen, if in the blood, is likely to be inhibited by usually achievable concentrations of the antimicrobial compound in blood. A report of “Intermediate” indicates that inhibitory concentrations of the antibiotic may be achieved if high dosage is used or if the infection is confined to tissues or fluids in which high antibiotic concentrations are attained. This category also provides a buffer zone that prevents small, uncontrolled technical factors from causing major discrepancies in interpretation. A report of “Resistant” indicates that usually achievable concentrations of the antimicrobial compound in the blood are unlikely to be inhibitory and that other therapy should be selected.
|Escherichia coli ATCC 25922||2 to 8|
|Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213||0.5 to 2|
Diffusion Techniques: Quantitative methods that require measurement of zone diameters provide estimates of the susceptibility of bacteria to antimicrobial compounds. One such standardized procedure2 that has been recommended (for use with disks) to test the susceptibility of microorganisms to cefuroxime uses the 30 mcg cefuroxime disk. Interpretation involves correlation of the diameter obtained in the disk test with the MIC for cefuroxime.
|Zone Diameter (mm)||Interpretation|
|≥ 23||(S) Susceptible|
|15 to 22||(I) Intermediate|
|≤ 14||(R) Resistant|
As with standard dilution techniques, diffusion methods require the use of laboratory control microorganisms. The 30 mcg cefuroxime disk provides the following zone diameters in these laboratory test quality control strains:
|Microorganism||Zone Diameter (mm)|
|Escherichia coli ATCC 25922||20 to 26|
|Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 25923||27 to 35|
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