Adenomatous Polyp Prevention Studies (NCT00005094 and NCT00141193)
Cardiovascular safety was evaluated in two randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, three-year studies involving patients with Sporadic Adenomatous Polyps treated with celecoxib: the APC trial (Adenoma Prevention with Celecoxib) and the PreSAP trial (Prevention of Spontaneous Adenomatous Polyps). In the APC trial, there was a dose-related increase in the composite endpoint (adjudicated) of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke with celecoxib compared to placebo over 3 years of treatment. The PreSAP trial did not demonstrate a statistically significant increased risk for the same composite endpoint (adjudicated):
- In the APC trial, the hazard ratios compared to placebo for a composite endpoint (adjudicated) of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction, or stroke were 3.4 (95% CI 1.4 to 8.5) with celecoxib 400 mg twice daily and 2.8 (95% CI 1.1 to 7.2) with celecoxib 200 mg twice daily. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 3% (20/671 subjects) and 2.5% (17/685 subjects), respectively, compared to 0.9% (6/679 subjects) with placebo treatment. The increases in both celecoxib dose groups versus placebo-treated patients were mainly due to an increased incidence of myocardial infarction.
- In the PreSAP trial, the hazard ratio for this same composite endpoint (adjudicated) was 1.2 (95% CI 0.6 to 2.4) with celecoxib 400 mg once daily compared to placebo. Cumulative rates for this composite endpoint over 3 years were 2.3% (21/933 subjects) and 1.9% (12/628 subjects), respectively.
Clinical trials of other COX-2 selective and non-selective NSAIDs of up to three-years duration have shown an increased risk of serious cardiovascular thrombotic events, myocardial infarction, and stroke, which can be fatal. As a result, all NSAIDs are considered potentially associated with this risk.
Celecoxib Long-Term Arthritis Safety Study (CLASS)
This was a prospective, long-term, safety outcome study conducted post-marketing in approximately 5,800 OA patients and 2,200 RA patients. Patients received celecoxib 400 mg twice daily (4-fold and 2-fold the recommended OA and RA doses, respectively), ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily or diclofenac 75 mg twice daily (common therapeutic doses). Median exposures for celecoxib (n = 3,987) and diclofenac (n = 1,996) were 9 months while ibuprofen (n = 1,985) was 6 months. The primary endpoint of this outcome study was the incidence of complicated ulcers (gastrointestinal bleeding, perforation, or obstruction). Patients were allowed to take concomitant low-dose (≤ 325 mg/day) aspirin (ASA) for cardiovascular prophylaxis (ASA subgroups: celecoxib, n = 882; diclofenac, n = 445; ibuprofen, n = 412). Differences in the incidence of complicated ulcers between celecoxib and the combined group of ibuprofen and diclofenac were not statistically significant.
Patients on celecoxib and concomitant low-dose ASA (N=882) experienced 4-fold higher rates of complicated ulcers compared to those not on ASA (N=3105). The Kaplan-Meier rate for complicated ulcers at 9 months was 1.12% versus 0.32% for those on low-dose ASA and those not on ASA, respectively [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4) ].
The estimated cumulative rates at 9 months of complicated and symptomatic ulcers for patients treated with celecoxib 400 mg twice daily are described in Table 7. Table 7 also displays results for patients less than or greater than 65 years of age. The difference in rates between celecoxib alone and celecoxib with ASA groups may be due to the higher risk for GI events in ASA users.
|celecoxib alone (n=3105)||0.78|
|celecoxib with ASA (n=882)||2.19|
|Patients <65 Years|
|celecoxib alone (n=2025)||0.47|
|celecoxib with ASA (n=403)||1.26|
|Patients ≥65 Years|
|celecoxib alone (n=1080)||1.40|
|celecoxib with ASA (n=479)||3.06|
In a small number of patients with a history of ulcer disease, the complicated and symptomatic ulcer rates in patients taking celecoxib alone or celecoxib with ASA were, respectively, 2.56% (n=243) and 6.85% (n=91) at 48 weeks. These results are to be expected in patients with a prior history of ulcer disease [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.1)].
Cardiovascular safety outcomes were also evaluated in the CLASS trial. Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates for investigator-reported serious cardiovascular thromboembolic adverse events (including MI, pulmonary embolism, deep venous thrombosis, unstable angina, transient ischemic attacks, and ischemic cerebrovascular accidents) demonstrated no differences between the celecoxib, diclofenac, or ibuprofen treatment groups. The cumulative rates in all patients at nine months for celecoxib, diclofenac, and ibuprofen were 1.2%, 1.4%, and 1.1%, respectively. The cumulative rates in non-ASA users at nine months in each of the three treatment groups were less than 1%. The cumulative rates for myocardial infarction in non-ASA users at nine months in each of the three treatment groups were less than 0.2%. There was no placebo group in the CLASS trial, which limits the ability to determine whether the three drugs tested had no increased risk of CV events or if they all increased the risk to a similar degree. In the CLASS study, the Kaplan-Meier cumulative rates at 9 months of peripheral edema in patients on celecoxib 400 mg twice daily (4-fold and 2-fold the recommended OA and RA doses, respectively), ibuprofen 800 mg three times daily and diclofenac 75 mg twice daily were 4.5%, 6.9% and 4.7%, respectively. The rates of hypertension from the CLASS trial in the celecoxib, ibuprofen and diclofenac-treated patients were 2.4%, 4.2% and 2.5%, respectively.
The correlation between findings of short-term endoscopic studies with celecoxib and the relative incidence of clinically significant serious upper GI events with long-term use has not been established. Serious clinically significant upper GI bleeding has been observed in patients receiving celecoxib in controlled and open-labeled trials [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2) and Clinical Studies (14.7)].
A randomized, double-blind study in 430 RA patients was conducted in which an endoscopic examination was performed at 6 months. The incidence of endoscopic ulcers in patients taking celecoxib 200 mg twice daily was 4% vs. 15% for patients taking diclofenac SR 75 mg twice daily. However, celecoxib was not statistically different than diclofenac for clinically relevant GI outcomes in the CLASS trial [see Clinical Studies (14.7)].
The incidence of endoscopic ulcers was studied in two 12-week, placebo-controlled studies in 2157 OA and RA patients in whom baseline endoscopies revealed no ulcers. There was no dose relationship for the incidence of gastroduodenal ulcers and the dose of celecoxib (50 mg to 400 mg twice daily). The incidence for naproxen 500 mg twice daily was 16.2% and 17.6% in the two studies, for placebo was 2% and 2.3%, and for all doses of celecoxib the incidence ranged between 2.7% to 5.9%. There have been no large, clinical outcome studies to compare clinically relevant GI outcomes with celecoxib and naproxen.
In the endoscopic studies, approximately 11% of patients were taking aspirin (≤ 325 mg/day). In the celecoxib groups, the endoscopic ulcer rate appeared to be higher in aspirin users than in non-users. However, the increased rate of ulcers in these aspirin users was less than the endoscopic ulcer rates observed in the active comparator groups, with or without aspirin.
Celecoxib capsules 50 mg are available for oral administration as hard gelatin capsules with a white opaque body and a white opaque cap. “APO C50” is imprinted on each capsule in red ink. They are supplied as follows:
Bottles of 30s NDC 60505-3847-3
Bottles of 60s NDC 60505-3847-6
Bottles of 100s NDC 60505-3847-1
Bottles of 1,000 NDC 60505-3847-8
Celecoxib capsules 100 mg are available for oral administration as hard gelatin capsules with a white opaque body and a white opaque cap. “APO C100” is imprinted on each capsule in blue ink. They are supplied as follows:
Bottles of 30s NDC 60505-3848-3
Bottles of 100s NDC 60505-3848-1
Bottles of 500s NDC 60505-3848-5
Bottles of 1,000 NDC 60505-3848-8
Celecoxib capsules 200 mg are available for oral administration as hard gelatin capsules with a white opaque body and a white opaque cap. “APO C200” is imprinted on each capsule in yellow ink. They are supplied as follows:
Bottles of 30s NDC 60505-3849-3
Bottles of 100s NDC 60505-3849-1
Bottles of 500s NDC 60505-3849-5
Bottles of 1,000 NDC 60505-3849-8
Storage: Store at 20°C to 25°C (68°F to 77°F); excursions permitted from 15°C to 30°C (59°F to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
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