CILOSTAZOL- cilostazol tablet
Cilostazol tablets are contraindicated in patients with heart failure of any severity. Cilostazol and several of its metabolites are inhibitors of phosphodiesterase III. Several drugs with this pharmacologic effect have caused decreased survival compared to placebo in patients with class III-IV heart failure [see Contraindications ( 4)] .
Cilostazol tablets are indicated for the reduction of symptoms of intermittent claudication, as demonstrated by an increased walking distance.
The recommended dosage of cilostazol is 100 mg twice daily taken at least half an hour before or two hours after breakfast and dinner.
Patients may respond as early as 2 to 4 weeks after the initiation of therapy, but treatment for up to 12 weeks may be needed before a beneficial effect is experienced. If symptoms are unimproved after 3 months, discontinue cilostazol.
Reduce dose to 50 mg twice daily when coadministered with strong or moderate inhibitors of CYP3A4 (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole, erythromycin, and diltiazem) or inhibitors of CYP2C19 (e.g., ticlopidine, fluconazole, and omeprazole) [see Drug Interactions ( 7.1)] .
Cilostazol tablets, USP 50 mg are white, round, flat-faced, bevelled-edge tablets, engraved “APO” on one side and “CIL” over “50” on the other side.
Cilostazol tablets, USP 100 mg tablets are white, round, flat-faced, bevelled-edge tablets, engraved “APO” on one side and “CIL” over “100” on the other side.
Cilostazol is contraindicated in patients with:
- Heart failure of any severity: Cilostazol and several of its metabolites are inhibitors of phosphodiesterase III. Several drugs with this pharmacologic effect have caused decreased survival compared to placebo in patients with class III-IV heart failure.
- Hypersensitivity to cilostazol or any components of cilostazol tablets (e.g., anaphylaxis, angioedema)
Cilostazol may induce tachycardia, palpitation, tachyarrhythmia or hypotension. The increase in heart rate associated with cilostazol is approximately 5 to 7 bpm. Patients with a history of ischemic heart disease may be at risk for exacerbations of angina pectoris or myocardial infarction.
Left ventricular outflow tract obstruction has been reported in patients with sigmoid shaped interventricular septum. Monitor patients for the development of a new systolic murmur or cardiac symptoms after starting cilostazol.
Cases of thrombocytopenia or leukopenia progressing to agranulocytosis when cilostazol was not immediately discontinued have been reported. Agranulocytosis is reversible on discontinuation of cilostazol. Monitor platelets and white blood cell counts periodically.
Cilostazol inhibits platelet aggregation in a reversible manner. Cilostazol has not been studied in patients with hemostatic disorders or active pathologic bleeding. Avoid use of cilostazol tablets in these patients.
The following adverse reactions are discussed in greater detail in other sections of the labeling:
- Patients with Heart Failure [see Boxed Warning]
- Tachycardia [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.1)]
- Left Ventricular Outflow Tract Obstruction [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.2)]
- Hematologic Adverse Reactions [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.3)]
- Hemostatic Disorders or Active Pathologic Bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions ( 5.4)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Adverse reactions were assessed in eight placebo-controlled clinical trials involving patients exposed to either 50 or 100 mg twice daily cilostazol tablets (n=1301) or placebo (n=973), with a median treatment duration of 127 days for patients on cilostazol tablets and 134 days for patients on placebo.
The most frequent adverse reaction resulting in discontinuation of therapy in more than 3% of patients treated with cilostazol tablets was headache [50 mg twice daily (1.3%), 100 mg twice daily (3.5%) and placebo (0.3%)]. Other frequent causes of discontinuation included palpitation and diarrhea, both 1.1% for cilostazol tablets (all doses) versus 0.1% for placebo.
The most common adverse reactions, occurring in at least 2% of patients treated with cilostazol tablets 50 or 100 mg twice daily, are shown in Table 1.
Table 1: Most Common Adverse Reactions in Patients on cilostazol tablets 50 or 100 mg Twice Daily (Incidence at least 2% and Occurring More Frequently (≥ 2%) in the 100 mg Twice Daily Group than on Placebo)
|Adverse Reactions||Placebo (N=973)||Cilostazol tablets 50 mg twice daily (N=303)||Cilostazol tablets 100 mg twice daily (N=998)|
Less frequent clinical significant adverse reactions (less than 2%) that were experienced by patients treated with cilostazol 50 mg twice daily or 100 mg twice daily in the eight controlled clinical trials and that occurred at a frequency in the 100 mg twice daily group greater than in the placebo group are listed below.
Body as a whole: fever, generalized edema, malaise
Cardiovascular: atrial fibrillation, heart failure, myocardial infarction, nodal arrhythmia, supraventricular tachycardia, ventricular extrasystoles, ventricular tachycardia
Digestive: anorexia, melena
Hematologic and Lymphatic: anemia
Metabolic and Nutritional: increased creatinine, hyperuricemia
Skin and Appendages: urticaria
Special Senses: conjunctivitis, retinal hemorrhage, tinnitus
Urogenital: urinary frequency
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