Ciloxan

CILOXAN- ciprofloxacin hydrochloride solution/ drops
REMEDYREPACK INC.

DESCRIPTION:

CILOXAN ® (ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution) is a synthetic, sterile, multiple dose, antimicrobial for topical ophthalmic use. Ciprofloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibacterial active against a broad spectrum of gram-positive and gram-negative ocular pathogens. It is available as the monohydrochloride monohydrate salt of 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinoline-carboxylic acid. It is a faint to light yellow crystalline powder with a molecular weight of 385.8. Its empirical formula is C 17 H 18 FN 3 O 3 •HCl•H 2 O and its chemical structure is as follows:


								chemical
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Ciprofloxacin differs from other quinolones in that it has a fluorine atom at the 6-position, a piperazine moiety at the 7-position, and a cyclopropyl ring at the 1-position.

Each mL of CILOXAN ® (ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution) 0.3% contains: Active: ciprofloxacin HCl 3.5 mg equivalent to 3 mg base. Preservative: benzalkonium chloride 0.006%. Inactives: sodium acetate, acetic acid, mannitol 4.6%, edetate disodium 0.05%, hydrochloric acid and/or sodium hydroxide (to adjust pH) and purified water. The pH is approximately 4.5 and the osmolality is approximately 300 mOsm.

CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY:

Systemic Absorption: A systemic absorption study was performed in which CILOXAN ® (ciprofloxacin ophthalmic solution) 0.3% was administered in each eye every two hours while awake for two days followed by every four hours while awake for an additional 5 days. The maximum reported plasma concentration of ciprofloxacin was less than 5 ng/mL. The mean concentration was usually less than 2.5 ng/mL.

Microbiology: Ciprofloxacin has in vitro activity against a wide range of gram-negative and gram-positive organisms. The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from interference with the enzyme DNA gyrase which is needed for the synthesis of bacterial DNA.

Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be active against most strains of the following organisms both in vitro and in clinical infections (see INDICATIONS AND USAGE).

Aerobic gram-positive microorganisms:

Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin-susceptible strains)

Staphylococcus epidermidis (methicillin-susceptible strains)

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus (Viridans Group)

Aerobic gram-negative microorganisms:

Haemophilus influenzae

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Serratia marcescens

Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be active in vitro against most strains of the following organisms, however, the clinical significance of these data is unknown:

Gram-Positive:

Enterococcus faecalis (Many strains are only moderately susceptible)

Staphylococcus haemolyticus

Staphylococcus hominis

Staphylococcus saprophyticus

Streptococcus pyogenes

Gram-Negative:

Acinetobacter calcoaceticus subsp. anitratus

Aeromonas caviae

Aeromonas hydrophila

Brucella melitensis

Campylobacter coli

Campylobacter jejuni

Citrobacter diversus

Citrobacter freundii

Edwardsiella tarda

Enterobacter aerogenes

Enterobacter cloacae

Escherichia coli

Haemophilus ducreyi

Haemophilus parainfluenzae

Kiebsiella pneumoniae

Klebsiella oxytoca

Legionella pneumophila

Moraxella (Branhamella) catarrhalis

Morganella morganii

Neisseria gonorrhoeae

Neisseria meningitidis

Pasteurella multocida

Proteus mirabilis

Proteus vulgaris

Providencia rettgeri

Providencia stuartii

Salmonella enteritidis

Salmonella typhi

Shigella sonneii

Shigella flexneri

Vibrio cholerae

Vibrio parahaemolyticus

Vibrio vulnificus

Yersinia enterocolitica

Other Organisms: Chlamydia trachomatis (only moderately susceptible) and Mycobacterium tuberculosis (only moderately susceptible).

Most strains of Pseudomonas cepacia and some strains of Pseudomonas maltophilia are resistant to ciprofloxacin as are most anaerobic bacteria, including Bacteroides fragilis and Clostridium difficile.

The minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) generally does not exceed the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) by more than a factor of 2. Resistance to ciprofloxacin in vitro usually develops slowly (multiple-step mutation).

Ciprofloxacin does not cross-react with other antimicrobial agents such as beta-lactams or aminoglycosides; therefore, organisms resistant to these drugs may be susceptible to ciprofloxacin.

INDICATIONS AND USAGE:

CILOXAN Ophthalmic Solution is indicated for the treatment of infections caused by susceptible strains of the designated microorganisms in the conditions listed below:

Corneal Ulcers:

Pseudomonas aeruginosa

Serratia marcescens *

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

Streptococcus (Viridans Group)*

Conjunctivitis:

Haemophilus influenzae

Staphylococcus aureus

Staphylococcus epidermidis

Streptococcus pneumoniae

*Efficacy for this organism was studied in fewer than 10 infections.

CONTRAINDICATIONS:

A history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin or any other component of the medication is a contraindication to its use. A history of hypersensitivity to other quinolones may also contraindicate the use of ciprofloxacin.

WARNINGS:

NOT FOR INJECTION INTO THE EYE.

Serious and occasionally fatal hypersensitivity (anaphylactic) reactions, some following the first dose, have been reported in patients receiving systemic quinolone therapy. Some reactions were accompanied by cardiovascular collapse, loss of consciousness, tingling, pharyngeal or facial edema, dyspnea, urticaria, and itching. Only a few patients had a history of hypersensitivity reactions. Serious anaphylactic reactions require immediate emergency treatment with epinephrine and other resuscitation measures, including oxygen, intravenous fluids, intravenous antihistamines, corticosteroids, pressor amines and airway management, as clinically indicated.

Remove contact lenses before using.

PRECAUTIONS:

General: As with other antibacterial preparations, prolonged use of ciprofloxacin may result in overgrowth of nonsusceptible organisms, including fungi. If superinfection occurs, appropriate therapy should be initiated. Whenever clinical judgment dictates, the patient should be examined with the aid of magnification, such as slit lamp biomicroscopy and, where appropriate, fluorescein staining.

Ciprofloxacin should be discontinued at the first appearance of a skin rash or any other sign of hypersensitivity reaction.

In clinical studies of patients with bacterial corneal ulcer, a white crystalline precipitate located in the superficial portion of the corneal defect was observed in 35 (16.6%) of 210 patients. The onset of the precipitate was within 24 hours to 7 days after starting therapy. In one patient, the precipitate was immediately irrigated out upon its appearance. In 17 patients, resolution of the precipitate was seen in 1 to 8 days (seven within the first 24 to 72 hours), in five patients, resolution was noted in 10 to 13 days. In nine patients, exact resolution days were unavailable; however, at follow-up examinations, 18 to 44 days after onset of the event, complete resolution of the precipitate was noted. In three patients, outcome information was unavailable. The precipitate did not preclude continued use of ciprofloxacin, nor did it adversely affect the clinical course of the ulcer or visual outcome (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).

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