Cinacalcet (Page 3 of 6)
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post approval use of cinacalcet. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
• Rash and hypersensitivity reactions (including angioedema and urticaria), and myalgia
• Isolated, idiosyncratic cases of hypotension, worsening heart failure, and/or arrhythmia have been reported in patients with impaired cardiac function
• Gastrointestinal bleeding
• Chondrocalcinosis pyrophosphate (acute pseudogout)
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
7.1 Strong CYP3A4 Inhibitors
Cinacalcet is partially metabolized by CYP3A4. Dose adjustment of cinacalcet may be required if a patient initiates or discontinues therapy with a strong CYP3A4 inhibitor (e.g., ketoconazole, itraconazole). The iPTH and serum calcium concentrations should be closely monitored in these patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
7.2 CYP2D6 Substrates
Cinacalcet is a strong inhibitor of CYP2D6. Dose adjustments may be required for concomitant medications that are predominantly metabolized by CYP2D6 (e.g., desipramine, metoprolol, and carvedilol) and particularly those with a narrow therapeutic index (e.g., flecainide and most tricyclic antidepressants) [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
Limited case reports of cinacalcet use in pregnant women are insufficient to inform a drug associated risk of adverse developmental outcomes. In animal reproduction studies, when female rats were exposed to cinacalcet during the period of organogenesis through to weaning at 2 to 3 times the systemic drug levels (based on AUC) at the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) of 180 mg/day, peripartum and early postnatal pup loss and reduced pup body weight gain were observed in the presence of maternal hypocalcemia [see Data].
The estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations is unknown. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.
In pregnant female rats given oral gavage doses of 2, 25, 50 mg/kg/day cinacalcet during gestation, no teratogenicity was observed at doses up to 50 mg/kg/day (exposure 4 times those resulting with a human oral dose of 180 mg/day based on AUC comparison). Decreased fetal body weights were observed at all doses (less than 1 to 4 times a human oral dose of 180 mg/day based on AUC comparison) in conjunction with maternal toxicity (decreased food consumption and body weight gain).
In pregnant female rabbits given oral gavage doses of 2, 12, 25 mg/kg/day cinacalcet during gestation, no adverse fetal effects were observed (exposures less than with a human oral dose of 180 mg/day based on AUC comparisons). Reductions in maternal food consumption and body weight gain were seen at doses of 12 and 25 mg/kg/day. Cinacalcet has been shown to cross the placental barrier in rabbits.
In pregnant rats given oral gavage doses of 5, 15, 25 mg/kg/day cinacalcet during gestation through lactation, no adverse fetal or pup (post-weaning) effects were observed at 5 mg/kg/day (exposures less than with a human therapeutic dose of 180 mg/day based on AUC comparisons). Higher doses of 15 and 25 mg/kg/day cinacalcet (exposures 2 to 3 times a human oral dose of 180 mg/day based on AUC comparisons) were accompanied by maternal signs of hypocalcemia (periparturient mortality and early postnatal pup loss), and reductions in postnatal maternal and pup body weight gain.
There are no data regarding the presence of cinacalcet in human milk or effects on the breastfed infant or on milk production. Studies in rats showed that cinacalcet was excreted in the milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for cinacalcet and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from cinacalcet or from the underlying maternal condition.
8.4 Pediatric Use
The safety and efficacy of cinacalcet have not been established in pediatric patients.
The use of cinacalcet for the treatment of secondary HPT in pediatric patients with CKD on dialysis was evaluated in two randomized, controlled studies (Pediatric Study 1 and Study 2) where 47 pediatric patients aged 6 years to less than 18 years received at least one dose of cinacalcet and in one single-arm study (Pediatric Study 3) where 17 pediatric patients aged 28 days to less than 6 years received at least one dose of cinacalcet. Dosing with cinacalcet in Pediatric Study 1 was stopped because of a fatality in a cinacalcet-treated individual. The individual was noted to be severely hypocalcemic at the time of death. The cause of death was multifactorial and a contribution of cinacalcet to the death could not be excluded [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Study 1 was terminated and changes to cinacalcet dosing after the fatality were implemented in Pediatric Study 2 and Study 3 to minimize the risk of severe hypocalcemia. The data in Pediatric Studies 2 and 3 were insufficient to establish the safety and efficacy of cinacalcet for the treatment of secondary HPT in pediatric patients with CKD on dialysis. In aggregate, the pediatric studies did not establish a safe and effective cinacalcet dosing regimen for the pediatric population.
8.5 Geriatric Use
Of the total number of subjects (n=1136) in clinical studies of cinacalcet, 26 percent were 65 and over, and 9 percent were 75 and over. No overall differences in the safety or effectiveness were observed between these subjects and younger subjects, and other reported clinical experience has not identified differences in responses between the elderly and younger subjects, but greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out [see Clinical Studies (14) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.6 Renal Impairment
No dosage adjustment is necessary for renal impairment [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
Patients with moderate and severe hepatic impairment should have serum calcium, serum phosphorus, and iPTH levels monitored closely throughout treatment with cinacalcet because cinacalcet exposure (AUC0-infinite ) is increased by 2.4 and 4.2 fold, respectively, in these patients [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
Overdosage of cinacalcet may lead to hypocalcemia. In the event of overdosage, patients should be monitored for signs and symptoms of hypocalcemia and appropriate measures taken to correct serum calcium levels [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Since cinacalcet is highly protein bound, hemodialysis is not an effective treatment for overdosage of cinacalcet.
Cinacalcet tablets contain the hydrochloride salt of the active ingredient cinacalcet, a positive modulator of the calcium sensing receptor. The molecular formula for cinacalcet is C22 H22 F3 N⋅HCl with a molecular weight of 393.9 grams/mol (hydrochloride salt) and 357.4 grams/mol (free base). It has one chiral center having an R-absolute configuration. The R-enantiomer is the more potent enantiomer and has been shown to be responsible for pharmacodynamic activity. The hydrochloride salt of cinacalcet is a white to off-white coloured crystalline powder, that is soluble in ethanol and methanol. The hydrochloride salt of cinacalcet is described chemically as N-[1-(R)-(-)-(1-naphthyl)ethyl]-3-[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]-1-aminopropane hydrochloride and has the following structural formula:
Cinacalcet tablets are formulated as light green, oval-shaped, film-coated tablets for oral administration in strengths of 30 mg, 60 mg, and 90 mg of cinacalcet as the free base equivalent (33.06 mg, 66.12 mg, and 99.18 mg as the hydrochloride salt, respectively).
The following are the inactive ingredients in cinacalcet tablets: colloidal silicon dioxide, crospovidone, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, povidone and pregelatinized starch (modified corn (maize) starch). Tablets are coated with color (Opadry II green) FD&C blue #2, hypromellose, iron oxide yellow, lactose monohydrate, titanium dioxide and triacetin.
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