Ciprofloxacin

CIPROFLOXACIN- ciprofloxacin hydrochloride tablet, coated
St Mary’s Medical Park Pharmacy

FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION:

WARNING: SERIOUS ADVERSE REACTIONS INCLUDING TENDINITIS, TENDON RUPTURE, PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFECTS AND EXACERBATION OF MYASTHENIA GRAVIS

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE
1.1 Skin and Skin Structure Infections
1.2 Bone and Joint Infections
1.3 Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections
1.4 Infectious Diarrhea
1.5 Typhoid Fever (Enteric Fever)
1.6 Uncomplicated Cervical and Urethral Gonorrhea
1.7 Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)
1.8 Plague
1.9 Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis
1.10 Lower Respiratory Tract Infections
1.11 Urinary Tract Infections
1.12 Acute Sinusitis
1.13 Usage
2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION
2.1 Dosage in Adults
2.2 Dosage in Pediatric Patients
2.3 Dosage Modifications in Patients with Renal Impairment
2.4 Important Administration Instructions
3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS
4 CONTRAINDICATIONS
4.1 Hypersensitivity
4.2 Tizanidine
5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS
5.1 Disabling and Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions Including Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Central Nervous System Effects
5.2 Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture
5.3 Peripheral Neuropathy
5.4 Central Nervous System Effects
5.5 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis
5.6 Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Reactions
5.7 Hypersensitivity Reactions
5.8 Hepatotoxicity
5.9 Serious Adverse Reactions with Concomitant Theophylline
5.10 Clostridium difficile-Associated Diarrhea
5.11 Prolongation of the QT Interval
5.12 Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients and Arthropathic Effects in Animals
5.13 Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity
5.14 Development of Drug Resistant Bacteria
5.15 Potential Risks with Concomitant Use of Drugs Metabolized by Cytochrome P450 1A2 Enzymes
5.16 Interference with Timely Diagnosis of Syphilis
5.17 Crystalluria
6 ADVERSE REACTIONS
6.1 Clinical Trials Experience
6.2 Postmarketing Experience
6.3 Adverse Laboratory Changes
7 DRUG INTERACTIONS
8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS
8.1 Pregnancy
8.3 Nursing Mothers
8.4 Pediatric Use
8.5 Geriatric Use
8.6 Renal Impairment
8.7 Hepatic Impairment
10 OVERDOSAGE
11 DESCRIPTION
12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY
12.1 Mechanism of Action
12.3 Pharmacokinetics
12.4 Microbiology
13 NONCLINICAL TOXICOLOGY
13.1 Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
13.2 Animal Toxicology and/or Pharmacology
14 CLINICAL STUDIES
14.1 Complicated Urinary Tract Infection and Pyelonephritis–Efficacy in Pediatric Patients
14.2 Inhalational Anthrax in Adults and Pediatrics
14.3 Plague
15 REFERENCES
16 HOW SUPPLIED/STORAGE AND HANDLING 17 PATIENT COUNSELING INFORMATION

* Sections or subsections omitted from the full prescribing information are not listed.

FULL PRESCRIBING INFORMATION

WARNING: SERIOUS ADVERSE REACTIONS INCLUDING TENDINITIS, TENDON RUPTURE, PERIPHERAL NEUROPATHY, CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM EFFECTS AND EXACERBATION OF MYASTHENIA GRAVIS

Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions that have occurred together [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)] including:

Tendinitis and tendon rupture [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]

Peripheral neuropathy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.3)]

Central nervous system effects [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)]

Discontinue ciprofloxacin immediately and avoid the use of fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, in patients who experience any of these serious adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, may exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. Avoid ciprofloxacin in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

Because fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1–5.15)], reserve ciprofloxacin for use in patients who have no alternative treatment options for the following indications:

Acute exacerbation of chronic bronchitis [see Indications and Usage (1.10)]

Acute uncomplicated cystitis [see Indications and Usage (1.11)]

Acute sinusitis [see Indications and Usage (1.12)]

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

1.1 Skin and Skin Structure Infections

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of skin and skin structure infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Proteus vulgaris, Providencia stuartii, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, or Streptococcus pyogenes.

1.2 Bone and Joint Infections

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of bone and joint infections caused by Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, or Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

1.3 Complicated Intra-Abdominal Infections

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of complicated intra-abdominal infections (used in combination with metronidazole) caused by Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Proteus mirabilis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, or Bacteroides fragilis.

1.4 Infectious Diarrhea

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of infectious diarrhea caused by Escherichia coli (enterotoxigenic isolates), Campylobacter jejuni, Shigella boydii†, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella flexneri or Shigella sonnei† when antibacterial therapy is indicated.

† Although treatment of infections due to this organism in this organ system demonstrated a clinically significant outcome, efficacy was studied in fewer than 10 patients.

1.5 Typhoid Fever (Enteric Fever)

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of typhoid fever (enteric fever) caused by Salmonella typhi. The efficacy of ciprofloxacin in the eradication of the chronic typhoid carrier state has not been demonstrated.

1.6 Uncomplicated Cervical and Urethral Gonorrhea

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of uncomplicated cervical and urethral gonorrhea due to Neisseria gonorrhoeae [see Warnings and Precautions (5.16)].

1.7 Inhalational Anthrax (Post-Exposure)

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adults and pediatric patients from birth to 17 years of age for inhalational anthrax (post-exposure) to reduce the incidence or progression of disease following exposure to aerosolized Bacillus anthracis.

Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in humans served as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provided the initial basis for approval of this indication.1 Supportive clinical information for ciprofloxacin for anthrax post-exposure prophylaxis was obtained during the anthrax bioterror attacks of October 2001 [see Clinical Studies (14.2)]..

1.8 Plague

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated for treatment of plague, including pneumonic and septicemic plague, due to Yersinia pestis (Y. pestis) and prophylaxis for plague in adults and pediatric patients from birth to 17 years of age. Efficacy studies of ciprofloxacin could not be conducted in humans with plague for feasibility reasons. Therefore this indication is based on an efficacy study conducted in animals only [see Clinical Studies (14.3)].

1.9 Chronic Bacterial Prostatitis

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of chronic bacterial prostatitis caused by Escherichia coli or Proteus mirabilis.

1.10 Lower Respiratory Tract Infections

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of lower respiratory tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Haemophilus influenzae, Haemophilus parainfluenzae, or Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Ciprofloxacin tablets are not a drug of first choice in the treatment of presumed or confirmed pneumonia secondary to Streptococcus pneumoniae.

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated for the treatment of acute exacerbations of chronic bronchitis (AECB) caused by Moraxella catarrhalis.

Because fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1–5.15)] and for some patients AECB is self-limiting, reserve ciprofloxacin tablets for treatment of AECB in patients who have no alternative treatment options.

1.11 Urinary Tract Infections

Urinary Tract Infections in Adults

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of urinary tract infections caused by Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterobacter cloacae, Serratia marcescens, Proteus mirabilis, Providencia rettgeri, Morganella morganii, Citrobacter koseri, Citrobacter freundii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus saprophyticus, or Enterococcus faecalis.

Acute Uncomplicated Cystitis

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult female patients for treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis caused by Escherichia coli or Staphylococcus saprophyticus.

Because fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1-5.15)] and for some patients acute uncomplicated cystitis is self-limiting, reserve ciprofloxacin tablets for treatment of acute uncomplicated cystitis in patients who have no alternative treatment options.

Complicated Urinary Tract Infection and Pyelonephritis in Pediatric Patients

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in pediatric patients aged one to 17 years of age for treatment of complicated urinary tract infections (cUTI) and pyelonephritis due to Escherichia coli [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].

Although effective in clinical trials, ciprofloxacin tablets are not a drug of first choice in the pediatric population due to an increased incidence of adverse reactions compared to controls, including reactions related to joints and/or surrounding tissues. Ciprofloxacin tablets, like other fluoroquinolones, are associated with arthropathy and histopathological changes in weight-bearing joints of juvenile animals [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Use in Specific Populations (8.4) and Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2)].

1.12 Acute Sinusitis

Ciprofloxacin tablets are indicated in adult patients for treatment of acute sinusitis caused by Haemophilus influenzae, Streptococcus pneumoniae, or Moraxella catarrhalis.

Because fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with serious adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1-5.15)] and for some patients acute sinusitis is self-limiting, reserve ciprofloxacin tablets for treatment of acute sinusitis in patients who have no alternative treatment options.

1.13 Usage

To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of ciprofloxacin tablets and other antibacterial drugs, ciprofloxacin tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.

If anaerobic organisms are suspected of contributing to the infection, appropriate therapy should be administered. Appropriate culture and susceptibility tests should be performed before treatment in order to isolate and identify organisms causing infection and to determine their susceptibility to ciprofloxacin. Therapy with ciprofloxacin tablets may be initiated before results of these tests are known; once results become available appropriate therapy should be continued.

As with other drugs, some isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa may develop resistance fairly rapidly during treatment with ciprofloxacin. Culture and susceptibility testing performed periodically during therapy will provide information not only on the therapeutic effect of the antimicrobial agent but also on the possible emergence of bacterial resistance.

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