The mean serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin associated with a statistically significant improvement in survival in the rhesus monkey model of inhalational anthrax are reached or exceeded in adult and pediatric patients receiving oral and intravenous regimens. Ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been evaluated in various human populations. The mean peak serum concentration achieved at steady-state in human adults receiving 500 mg orally every 12 hours is 2.97 mcg/mL, and 4.56 mcg/mL following 400 mg intravenously every 12 hours. The mean trough serum concentration at steady-state for both of these regimens is 0.2 mcg/mL. In a study of 10 pediatric patients between 6 and 16 years of age, the mean peak plasma concentration achieved is 8.3 mcg/mL and trough concentrations range from 0.09 mcg/mL to 0.26 mcg/mL, following two 30-minute intravenous infusions of 10 mg/kg administered 12 hours apart. After the second intravenous infusion patients switched to 15 mg/kg orally every 12 hours achieve a mean peak concentration of 3.6 mcg/mL after the initial oral dose. Long-term safety data, including effects on cartilage, following the administration of ciprofloxacin to pediatric patients are limited. Ciprofloxacin serum concentrations achieved in humans serve as a surrogate endpoint reasonably likely to predict clinical benefit and provide the basis for this indication. 1
A placebo-controlled animal study in rhesus monkeys exposed to an inhaled mean dose of 11 LD 50 (~5.5 x 10 5 spores (range 5 to 30 LD 50 ) of B. anthracis was conducted. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin for the anthrax strain used in this study was 0.08 mcg/mL. In the animals studied, mean serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin achieved at expected T max (1 hour post-dose) following oral dosing to steady-state ranged from 0.98 mcg/mL to 1.69 mcg/mL. Mean steady-state trough concentrations at 12 hours post-dose ranged from 0.12 mcg/mL to 0.19 mcg/mL. 10 Mortality due to anthrax for animals that received a 30-day regimen of oral ciprofloxacin beginning 24 hours post-exposure was significantly lower (1/9), compared to the placebo group (9/10) [p= 0.001]. The one ciprofloxacin-treated animal that died of anthrax did so following the 30-day drug administration period. 11
More than 9300 persons were recommended to complete a minimum of 60 days of antibacterial prophylaxis against possible inhalational exposure to B. anthracis during 2001. Ciprofloxacin was recommended to most of those individuals for all or part of the prophylaxis regimen. Some persons were also given anthrax vaccine or were switched to alternative antibacterial drugs. No one who received ciprofloxacin or other therapies as prophylactic treatment subsequently developed inhalational anthrax. The number of persons who received ciprofloxacin as all or part of their post-exposure prophylaxis regimen is unknown.
A placebo-controlled animal study in African green monkeys exposed to an inhaled mean dose of 110 LD 50 (range 92 to 127 LD 50 ) of Yersinia pestis (CO92 strain) was conducted. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of ciprofloxacin for the Y. pestis strain used in this study was 0.015 mcg/mL. Mean peak serum concentrations of ciprofloxacin achieved at the end of a single 60 minute infusion were 3.49 mcg/mL ± 0.55 mcg/mL, 3.91 mcg/mL ± 0.58 mcg/mL and 4.03 mcg/mL ± 1.22 mcg/mL on Day 2, Day 6 and Day 10 of treatment in African green monkeys, respectively All trough concentrations (Day 2, Day 6 and Day 10) were <0.5 mcg/mL. Animals were randomized to receive either a 10-day regimen of intravenous ciprofloxacin 15 mg/kg, or placebo beginning when animals were found to be febrile (a body temperature greater than 1.5°C over baseline for two hours), or at 76 hours post-challenge, whichever occurred sooner. Mortality in the ciprofloxacin group was significantly lower (1/10) compared to the placebo group (2/2) [difference: -90%, 95% exact confidence interval: -99.8% to -5.8%]. The one ciprofloxacin-treated animal that died did not receive the proposed dose of ciprofloxacin due to a failure of the administration catheter. Circulating ciprofloxacin concentration was below 0.5 mcg/mL at all timepoints tested in this animal. It became culture negative on Day 2 of treatment, but had a resurgence of low grade bacteremia on Day 6 after treatment initiation. Terminal blood culture in this animal was negative. 12
1. 21 CFR 314.510 (Subpart H–Accelerated Approval of New Drugs for Life-Threatening Illnesses).
2. Friedman J, Polifka J. Teratogenic effects of drugs: a resource for clinicians (TERIS). Baltimore, Maryland: Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000:149-195.
3. Loebstein R, Addis A, Ho E, et al. Pregnancy outcome following gestational exposure to fluoroquinolones: a multicenter prospective controlled study. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1998;42(6):1336-1339.
4. Schaefer C, Amoura-Elefant E, Vial T, et al. Pregnancy outcome after prenatal quinolone exposure. Evaluation of a case registry of the European network of teratology information services (ENTIS). Eur J Obstet Gynecol Reprod Biol. 1996;69:83-89.
5. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Dilution Antimicrobial Susceptibility Tests for Bacteria That Grow Aerobically ; Approved Standard–Tenth Edition. CLSI Document M7-A10 . Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Rd., Suite 2500, Wayne, PA. 19087-1898.
6. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing; Twenty-seventh Informational Supplement. CLSI Document M100 S27 . Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Rd., Suite 2500, Wayne, PA. 19087-1898.
7. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI). Methods for Antimicrobial Dilution and Disk Susceptibility Testing of Infrequently Isolated or Fastidious Bacteria; Approved Guideline–Third Edition . CLSI Document M45-A3 . Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Rd., Suite 2500, Wayne, PA. 19087-1898.
8. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI), Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Disk Susceptibility Tests; Approved Standard–Twelfth Edition. CLSI Document M2-A12 . Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute, 950 West Valley Rd., Suite 2500, Wayne, PA. 19087-1898.
9. CReport presented at the FDA’s Anti-Infective Drug and Dermatological Drug Product’s Advisory Committee meeting, March 31, 1993, Silver Spring, MD. Report available from FDA, CDER, Advisors and Consultants Staff, HFD-21, 1901 Chapman Avenue, Room 200, Rockville, MD 20852, USA.
10. Kelly DJ, et al. Serum concentrations of penicillin, doxycycline, and ciprofloxacin during prolonged therapy in rhesus monkeys. J Infect Dis 1992; 166:1184-7.
11. Friedlander AM, et al. Postexposure prophylaxis against experimental inhalational anthrax. J Infect Dis 1993; 167:1239-42.
12. Anti-infective Drugs Advisory Committee Meeting, April 3, 2012 — The efficacy of Ciprofloxacin for treatment of Pneumonic Plague.
Ciprofloxacin Tablets USP, 500 mg are available as white to off-white, capsule shaped film coated tablets debossed with ‘C’ on one side and ‘94’ on the other side.
Bottles of 6 NDC 70934-093-06
Bottles of 10 NDC 70934-093-10
Bottles of 14 NDC 70934-093-14
Bottles of 30 NDC 70934-093-30
Store at 20° to 25°C (68° to 77°F); excursions permitted to 15° to 30°C (59° to 86°F) [see USP Controlled Room Temperature].
Advise the patient to read the
FDA- approved patient labeling (
Serious Adverse Reactions
Advise patients to stop taking ciprofloxacin tablets if they experience an adverse reaction and to call their healthcare provider for advice on completing the full course of treatment with another antibacterial drug.
Inform patients of the following serious adverse reactions that have been associated with ciprofloxacin tablets or other fluoroquinolone use:
- Disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions that may occur together: Inform patients that disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions, including tendinitis and tendon rupture, peripheral neuropathies, and central nervous system effects, have been associated with use of ciprofloxacin tablets and may occur together in the same patient. Inform patients to stop taking ciprofloxacin tablets immediately if they experience an adverse reaction and to call their healthcare provider.
- Tendinitis and tendon rupture: Instruct patients to contact their healthcare provider if they experience pain, swelling, or inflammation of a tendon, or weakness or inability to use one of their joints; rest and refrain from exercise; and discontinue ciprofloxacin tablets treatment. Symptoms may be irreversible. The risk of severe tendon disorder with fluoroquinolones is higher in older patients usually over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants.
- Peripheral Neuropathies: Inform patients that peripheral neuropathies have been associated with ciprofloxacin use, symptoms may occur soon after initiation of therapy and may be irreversible. If symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness and/or weakness develop, immediately discontinue ciprofloxacin tablets and tell them to contact their physician.
- Central nervous system effects (for example, convulsions, dizziness, lightheadedness, increased intracranial pressure) : Inform patients that convulsions have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including Ciprofloxacin. Instruct patients to notify their physician before taking this drug if they have a history of convulsions. Inform patients that they should know how they react to ciprofloxacin tablets before they operate an automobile or machinery or engage in other activities requiring mental alertness and coordination. Instruct patients to notify their physician if persistent headache with or without blurred vision occurs.
- Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis: Instruct patients to inform their physician of any history of myasthenia gravis. Instruct patients to notify their physician if they experience any symptoms of muscle weakness, including respiratory difficulties.
- Hypersensitivity Reactions: Inform patients that ciprofloxacin can cause hypersensitivity reactions, even following a single dose, and to discontinue the drug at the first sign of a skin rash, hives or other skin reactions, a rapid heartbeat, difficulty in swallowing or breathing, any swelling suggesting angioedema (for example, swelling of the lips, tongue, face, tightness of the throat, hoarseness), or other symptoms of an allergic reaction.
- Hepatotoxicity: Inform patients that severe hepatotoxicity (including acute hepatitis and fatal events) has been reported in patients taking ciprofloxacin tablets. Instruct patients to inform their physician if they experience any signs or symptoms of liver injury including: loss of appetite, nausea, vomiting, fever, weakness, tiredness, right upper quadrant tenderness, itching, yellowing of the skin and eyes, light colored bowel movements or dark colored urine.
- Diarrhea: Diarrhea is a common problem caused by antibiotics which usually ends when the antibiotic is discontinued. Sometimes after starting treatment with antibiotics, patients can develop watery and bloody stools (with or without stomach cramps and fever) even as late as two or more months after having taken the last dose of the antibiotic. If this occurs, instruct patients to contact their physician as soon as possible.
- Prolongation of the QT Interval: Instruct patients to inform their physician of any personal or family history of QT prolongation or proarrhythmic conditions such as hypokalemia, bradycardia, or recent myocardial ischemia; if they are taking any Class IA (quinidine, procainamide), or Class III (amiodarone, sotalol) antiarrhythmic agents. Instruct patients to notify their physician if they have any symptoms of prolongation of the QT interval, including prolonged heart palpitations or a loss of consciousness.
- Musculoskeletal Disorders in Pediatric Patients: Instruct parents to inform their child’s physician if the child has a history of joint-related problems before taking this drug. Inform parents of pediatric patients to notify their child’s physician of any joint-related problems that occur during or following ciprofloxacin therapy [see Warnings and Precautions (5.12) and Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
- Tizanidine: Instruct patients not to use ciprofloxacin if they are already taking tizanidine. Ciprofloxacin increases the effects of tizanidine (Zanaflex ®).
- Theophylline: Inform patients that ciprofloxacin may increase the effects of theophylline. Life-threatening CNS effects and arrhythmias can occur. Advise the patients to immediately seek medical help if they experience seizures, palpitations, or difficulty breathing.
- Caffeine: Inform patients that ciprofloxacin tablets may increase the effects of caffeine. There is a possibility of caffeine accumulation when products containing caffeine are consumed while taking quinolones.
- Photosensitivity/Phototoxicity: Inform patients that photosensitivity/phototoxicity has been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones. Inform patients to minimize or avoid exposure to natural or artificial sunlight (tanning beds or UVA/B treatment) while taking quinolones. If patients need to be outdoors while using quinolones, instruct them to wear loose-fitting clothes that protect skin from sun exposure and discuss other sun protection measures with their physician. If a sunburn-like reaction or skin eruption occurs, instruct patients to contact their physician.
Inform patients that antibacterial drugs including ciprofloxacin tablets should only be used to treat bacterial infections. They do not treat viral infections (for example, the common cold). When ciprofloxacin tablets are prescribed to treat a bacterial infection, patients should be told that although it is common to feel better early in the course of therapy, the medication should be taken exactly as directed. Skipping doses or not completing the full course of therapy may (1) decrease the effectiveness of the immediate treatment and (2) increase the likelihood that bacteria will develop resistance and will not be treatable by ciprofloxacin tablets or other antibacterial drugs in the future.
Administration with Food, Fluids, and Concomitant Medications
Inform patients that ciprofloxacin tablets may be taken with or without food.
Inform patients to drink fluids liberally while taking ciprofloxacin tablets to avoid formation of highly concentrated urine and crystal formation in the urine.
Inform patients that antacids containing magnesium, or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc or didanosine should be taken at least two hours before or six hours after ciprofloxacin tablets administration. Ciprofloxacin tablets should not be taken with dairy products (like milk or yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone since absorption of ciprofloxacin may be significantly reduced; however, ciprofloxacin tablets may be taken with a meal that contains these products.
Drug Interactions Oral Antidiabetic Agents
Inform patients that hypoglycemia has been reported when ciprofloxacin and oral antidiabetic agents were co-administered; if low blood sugar occurs with ciprofloxacin tablets, instruct them to consult their physician and that their antibacterial medicine may need to be changed.
Anthrax and Plague Studies
Inform patients given ciprofloxacin tablets for these conditions that efficacy studies could not be conducted in humans for feasibility reasons. Therefore, approval for these conditions was based on efficacy studies conducted in animals.
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