CIPROFLOXACIN (Page 3 of 13)

2.4 Preparation of Ciprofloxacin for Administration

The 2 mg/mL infusion solution in 5% dextrose is available in flexible containers of 100 mL or 200 mL. The solutions in flexible containers do not need to be diluted and may be infused as described below.

If the Y-type or “piggyback” method of administration is used, it is advisable to discontinue temporarily the administration of any other solutions during the infusion of ciprofloxacin. If the concomitant use of ciprofloxacin and another drug is necessary each drug should be given separately in accordance with the recommended dosage and route of administration for each drug.

2.5 Important Administration Instructions

Intravenous Infusion

Ciprofloxacin Injection, USP (in 5% Dextrose Injection) should be administered by intravenous infusion over a period of 60 minutes. Slow infusion of a dilute solution into a larger vein will minimize patient discomfort and reduce the risk of venous irritation.

Hydration of Patients Receiving Ciprofloxacin

Adequate hydration of patients receiving Ciprofloxacin Injection, USP (in 5% Dextrose Injection) should be maintained to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine. Crystalluria has been reported with quinolones [see Warnings and Precautions (5.17), Adverse Reactions (6.1), Nonclinical Toxicology (13.2) and Patient Counseling Information (17)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Injection: (100 mL in 5% Dextrose, 200 mg) and (200 mL in 5% Dextrose, 400 mg) latex-free flexible containers, for intravenous infusion.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity

Ciprofloxacin Injection (in 5% Dextrose Injection) is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, any member of the quinolone class of antibacterials, or any of the product components [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

4.2 Tizanidine

Concomitant administration with tizanidine is contraindicated [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Disabling and Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions Including Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Central Nervous System Effects

Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions from different body systems that can occur together in the same patient. Commonly seen adverse reactions include tendinitis, tendon rupture, arthralgia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects (hallucinations, anxiety, depression, insomnia, severe headaches, and confusion). These reactions can occur within hours to weeks after starting ciprofloxacin. Patients of any age or without pre-existing risk factors have experienced these adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.4)].

Discontinue ciprofloxacin immediately at the first signs or symptoms of any serious adverse reaction. In addition, avoid the use of fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, in patients who have experienced any of these serious adverse reactions associated with fluoroquinolones.

5.2 Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture

Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and has also been reported with the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendons. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can occur, within hours or days of starting ciprofloxacin, or as long as several months after completion of fluoroquinolone therapy. Tendinitis and tendon rupture can occur bilaterally.

The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased in patients over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Other factors, that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have also occurred in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors. Discontinue ciprofloxacin immediately if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, in patients who have a history of tendon disorders or have experienced tendinitis or tendon rupture [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.3 Peripheral Neuropathy

Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of ciprofloxacin and may be irreversible in some patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)].

Discontinue ciprofloxacin immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness, or other alterations in sensations including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense and vibratory sensation, and/or motor strength in order to minimize the development of an irreversible condition. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, in patients who have previously experienced peripheral neuropathy [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)].

5.4 Central Nervous System Effects

Psychiatric Adverse Reactions

Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of psychiatric adverse reactions, including: toxic psychosis, psychotic reactions progressing to suicidal ideations/thoughts, hallucinations, or paranoia; depression, or self-injurious behavior such as attempted or completed suicide; anxiety, agitation, or nervousness; confusion, delirium, disorientation, or disturbances in attention; insomnia or nightmares; memory impairment. These reactions may occur following the first dose. Advise patients receiving ciprofloxacin to inform their healthcare provider immediately if these reactions occur, discontinue the drug, and institute appropriate care [see Adverse Reactions (6.1)].

Central Nervous System Adverse Reactions

Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of seizures (convulsions), increased intracranial pressure (pseudotumor cerebri), dizziness, and tremors.

Ciprofloxacin, like other fluoroquinolones, is known to trigger seizures or lower the seizure threshold. Cases of status epilepticus have been reported. As with all fluoroquinolones, use ciprofloxacin with caution in epileptic patients and patients with known or suspected CNS disorders that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (for example, severe cerebral arteriosclerosis, previous history of convulsion, reduced cerebral blood flow, altered brain structure, or stroke), or in the presence of other risk factors that may predispose to seizures or lower the seizure threshold (for example, certain drug therapy, renal dysfunction). If seizures occur, discontinue ciprofloxacin, and institute appropriate care [see Adverse Reactions (6.1) and Drug Interactions (7)].

5.5 Exacerbation of Myasthenia Gravis

Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have neuromuscular blocking activity and may exacerbate muscle weakness in patients with myasthenia gravis. Postmarketing serious adverse reactions, including deaths and requirement for ventilatory support, have been associated with fluoroquinolone use in patients with myasthenia gravis. Avoid Ciprofloxacin Injection in patients with known history of myasthenia gravis [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.6 Other Serious and Sometimes Fatal Adverse Reactions

Other serious and sometimes fatal adverse reactions, some due to hypersensitivity, and some due to uncertain etiology, have been reported in patients receiving therapy with quinolones, including ciprofloxacin. These events may be severe and generally occur following the administration of multiple doses. Clinical manifestations may include one or more of the following:

  • Fever, rash, or severe dermatologic reactions (for example, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome);
  • Vasculitis; arthralgia; myalgia; serum sickness;
  • Allergic pneumonitis;
  • Interstitial nephritis; acute renal insufficiency or failure;
  • Hepatitis; jaundice; acute hepatic necrosis or failure;
  • Anemia, including hemolytic and aplastic; thrombocytopenia, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura; leukopenia; agranulocytosis; pancytopenia; and/or other hematologic abnormalities.

Discontinue ciprofloxacin immediately at the first appearance of a skin rash, jaundice, or any other sign of hypersensitivity and supportive measures instituted [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)].

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