Ciprofloxacin (Page 3 of 12)

2.3 Dosage Modifications in Patients with Renal Impairment

Ciprofloxacin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion; however, the drug is also metabolized and partially cleared through the biliary system of the liver and through the intestine. These alternative pathways of drug elimination appear to compensate for the reduced renal excretion in patients with renal impairment. Nonetheless, some modification of dosage is recommended, particularly for patients with severe renal dysfunction. Dosage guidelines for use in patients with renal impairment are shown in Table 4.

Table 4: Recommended Starting and Maintenance Doses for Adult Patients with Impaired Renal Function
Creatinine Clearance (mL/min) Dose
>50 See Usual Dosage
30 -50 250 – 500 mg every 12 hours
5 — 29 250 – 500 mg every 18 hours
Patients on hemodialysis or Peritoneal dialysis 250 – 500 mg every 24 hours (after dialysis)

When only the serum creatinine concentration is known, the following formulas may be used to estimate creatinine clearance:
Men — Creatinine clearance (mL/min) = Weight (kg) x (140-age)
72 x serum creatinine (mg/dL)
Women — 0.85 x the value calculated for men.

The serum creatinine should represent a steady state of renal function.

In patients with severe infections and severe renal impairment, a unit dose of 750 mg may be administered at the intervals noted above. Patients should be carefully monitored.

Pediatric patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency were excluded from the clinical trial of cUTI and pyelonephritis. No information is available on dosing adjustments necessary for pediatric patients with moderate to severe renal insufficiency (that is, creatinine clearance of < 50 mL/min/1.73m2).

2.4 Important Administration Instructions

With Multivalent Cations

Administer ciprofloxacin tablets at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after magnesium/aluminum antacids; polymeric phosphate binders (for example, sevelamer, lanthanum carbonate) or sucralfate; Videx® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric powder for oral solution; other highly buffered drugs; or other products containing calcium, iron or zinc.

With Dairy Products

Concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin tablets with dairy products (like milk or yogurt) or calcium-fortified juices alone should be avoided since decreased absorption is possible; however, ciprofloxacin tablets may be taken with a meal that contains these products.

Hydration of Patients Receiving Ciprofloxacin Tablets

Assure adequate hydration of patients receiving ciprofloxacin tablets to prevent the formation of highly concentrated urine. Crystalluria has been reported with quinolones.

Instruct the patient of the appropriate ciprofloxacin tablet administration [see Patient Counseling Information (17)].

Missed Doses
If a dose is missed, it should be taken anytime but not later than 6 hours prior to the next scheduled dose. If less than 6 hours remain before the next dose, the missed dose should not be taken and treatment should be continued as prescribed with the next scheduled dose. Double doses should not be taken to compensate for a missed dose.

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

3.1 Tablets

  • For 250 mg: White colored, biconvex, circular, film coated tablets, debossed ‘P’ on one side and ‘250’ on the other side.
  • For 500 mg: White colored, biconvex, capsule shaped, film coated tablets, debossed ‘P’ on one side and ‘500’ on the other side.
  • For 750 mg: White colored, biconvex, capsule shaped, film coated tablets, debossed ‘P’ on one side and ‘750’ on the other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

4.1 Hypersensitivity

Ciprofloxacin tablet is contraindicated in persons with a history of hypersensitivity to ciprofloxacin, any member of the quinolone class of antibacterials, or any of the product components [see Warnings and Precautions (5.7)].

4.2 Tizanidine

Concomitant administration with tizanidine is contraindicated [see Drug Interactions (7)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Disabling and Potentially Irreversible Serious Adverse Reactions Including Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture, Peripheral Neuropathy, and Central Nervous System Effects

Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with disabling and potentially irreversible serious adverse reactions from different body systems that can occur together in the same patient. Commonly seen adverse reactions include tendinitis, tendon rupture, arthralgia, myalgia, peripheral neuropathy, and central nervous system effects (hallucinations, anxiety, depression, insomnia, severe headaches, and confusion). These reactions can occur within hours to weeks after starting ciprofloxacin tablets. Patients of any age or without pre-existing risk factors have experienced these adverse reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2, 5.3, 5.4)].

Discontinue ciprofloxacin tablets immediately at the first signs or symptoms of any serious adverse reaction. In addition, avoid the use of fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, in patients who have experienced any of these serious adverse reactions associated with fluoroquinolones.

5.2 Tendinitis and Tendon Rupture

Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of tendinitis and tendon rupture in all ages [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)]. This adverse reaction most frequently involves the Achilles tendon, and has also been reported with the rotator cuff (the shoulder), the hand, the biceps, the thumb, and other tendons. Tendinitis or tendon rupture can occur, within hours or days of starting ciprofloxacin tablets, or as long as several months after completion of fluoroquinolone therapy. Tendinitis and tendon rupture can occur bilaterally.
The risk of developing fluoroquinolone-associated tendinitis and tendon rupture is increased in patients over 60 years of age, in patients taking corticosteroid drugs, and in patients with kidney, heart or lung transplants. Other factors that may independently increase the risk of tendon rupture include strenuous physical activity, renal failure, and previous tendon disorders such as rheumatoid arthritis. Tendinitis and tendon rupture have also occurred in patients taking fluoroquinolones who do not have the above risk factors. Discontinue ciprofloxacin tablets immediately if the patient experiences pain, swelling, inflammation or rupture of a tendon. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, in patients who have a history of tendon disorders or have experienced tendinitis or tendon rupture [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].

5.3 Peripheral Neuropathy

Fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, have been associated with an increased risk of peripheral neuropathy. Cases of sensory or sensorimotor axonal polyneuropathy affecting small and/or large axons resulting in paresthesias, hypoesthesias, dysesthesias and weakness have been reported in patients receiving fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin. Symptoms may occur soon after initiation of ciprofloxacin tablets and may be irreversible in some patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) and Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)]. Discontinue ciprofloxacin tablets immediately if the patient experiences symptoms of peripheral neuropathy including pain, burning, tingling, numbness, and/or weakness, or other alterations in sensations including light touch, pain, temperature, position sense and vibratory sensation, and/or motor strength in order to minimize the development of an irreversible condition. Avoid fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, in patients who have previously experienced peripheral neuropathy [see Adverse Reactions (6.1, 6.2)].

All MedLibrary.org resources are included in as near-original form as possible, meaning that the information from the original provider has been rendered here with only typographical or stylistic modifications and not with any substantive alterations of content, meaning or intent.

This site is provided for educational and informational purposes only, in accordance with our Terms of Use, and is not intended as a substitute for the advice of a medical doctor, nurse, nurse practitioner or other qualified health professional.

Privacy Policy | Copyright © 2022. All Rights Reserved.