Ciprofloxacin (Page 10 of 15)

8.6 Renal Impairment

Ciprofloxacin is eliminated primarily by renal excretion; however, the drug is also metabolized and partially cleared through the biliary system of the liver and through the intestine. These alternative pathways of drug elimination appear to compensate for the reduced renal excretion in patients with renal impairment. Nonetheless, some modification of dosage is recommended, particularly for patients with severe renal dysfunction [see Dosage and Administration ( 2.3) and Clinical Pharmacology ( 12.3)].

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

In preliminary studies in patients with stable chronic liver cirrhosis, no significant changes in ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been observed. The pharmacokinetics of ciprofloxacin in patients with acute hepatic insufficiency, have not been studied.

10 OVERDOSAGE

In the event of acute overdosage, reversible renal toxicity has been reported in some cases. Empty the stomach by inducing vomiting or by gastric lavage. Observe the patient carefully and give supportive treatment, including monitoring of renal function, urinary pH and acidify, if required, to prevent crystalluria and administration of magnesium, aluminum, or calcium containing antacids which can reduce the absorption of ciprofloxacin. Adequate hydration must be maintained. Only a small amount of ciprofloxacin (less than 10%) is removed from the body after hemodialysis or peritoneal dialysis.

11 DESCRIPTION

Ciprofloxacin Tablets, USP are synthetic antimicrobial agents for oral administration. Ciprofloxacin hydrochloride, USP, a fluoroquinolone, is the monohydrochloride monohydrate salt of 1-cyclopropyl- 6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)- 3-quinolinecarboxylic acid. It is a faintly yellowish to light yellow crystalline substance with a molecular weight of 385.8. Its empirical formula is C 17 H 18 FN 3 O 3 •HCl•H 2 O and its chemical structure is as follows:

chem struc 1

Ciprofloxacin is 1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-1,4-dihydro-4-oxo-7-(1-piperazinyl)-3-quinolinecarboxylic acid. Its empirical formula is C 17 H 18 FN 3 O 3 and its molecular weight is 331.4. It is a faintly yellowish to light yellow crystalline substance and its chemical structure is as follows:

chem struc 2

Ciprofloxacin film-coated tablets are available in 250 mg and 500 mg (ciprofloxacin equivalent) strengths. Ciprofloxacin Tablets, USP are white. The inactive ingredients are colloidal silicon dioxide, corn starch, partially pregelatinized maize starch, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, sodium starch glycolate (starch from non-GMO potatoes), hypromellose, titanium dioxide and PEG.

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Ciprofloxacin is a member of the fluoroquinolone class of antibacterial agents [see Microbiology ( 12.4)].

12.3 Pharmacokinetics

Absorption

The absolute bioavailability of Ciprofloxacin when given as an oral tablet is approximately 70% with no substantial loss by first pass metabolism. Ciprofloxacin maximum serum concentrations (Cmax)and area under the curve (AUC) are shown in the chart for the 250 mg to 1000 mg dose range (Table 9).

Table 9: Ciprofloxacin Cmax and AUC Following Adminstration of Single Doses of Ciprofloxacin Tablets to Healthy Subjects

Dose (mg)

Cmax

(mcg/mL)

AUC
(mcg•hr/mL)

250

1.2

4.8

500

2.4

11.6

750

4.3

20.2

1000

5.4

30.8

Maximum serum concentrations are attained 1 to 2 hours after oral dosing. Mean concentrations 12 hours after dosing with 250, 500, or 750 mg are 0.1, 0.2, and 0.4 mcg/mL, respectively. The serum elimination half-life in subjects with normal renal function is approximately 4 hours. Serum concentrations increase proportionately with doses up to 1000 mg.

A 500 mg oral dose given every 12 hours has been shown to produce an AUC equivalent to that produced by an intravenous infusion of 400 mg ciprofloxacin given over 60 minutes every 12 hours. A 750 mg oral dose given every 12 hours has been shown to produce an AUC at steady-state equivalent to that produced by an intravenous infusion of 400 mg given over 60 minutes every 8 hours. A 750 mg oral dose results in a Cmax similar to that observed with a 400 mg intravenous dose. A 250 mg oral dose given every 12 hours produces an AUC equivalent to that produced by an infusion of 200 mg ciprofloxacin given every 12 hours (Table 10).

Table 10: Steady-state Cmax and AUC of Ciprofloxacin Following Administration of Multiple Oral and IV Ciprofloxacin Doses to Healthy Subjects

Parameters

500 mg

400 mg

750 mg

400 mg

every 12 hours, orally

every 12 hours, intravenous

every 12 hours, orally

every 8 hours, intravenous

AUC (mcg•hr/mL)

13.7 1

12.71 1

31.62 2

32.93 3

Cmax (mcg/mL)

2.97

4.56

3.59

4.07

1. AUC 0–12h
2. AUC 24h = AUC 0–12h x 2
3. AUC 24h = AUC 0–8h x 3

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