The elimination kinetics of ciprofloxacin are similar for the immediate-release and the ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets. In studies comparing the ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets and immediate-release ciprofloxacin, approximately 35% of an orally administered dose was excreted in the urine as unchanged drug for both formulations. The urinary excretion of ciprofloxacin is virtually complete within 24 hours after dosing. The renal clearance of ciprofloxacin, which is approximately 300 mL/minute, exceeds the normal glomerular filtration rate of 120 mL/minute. Thus, active tubular secretion would seem to play a significant role in its elimination. Co-administration of probenecid with immediate-release ciprofloxacin results in about a 50% reduction in the ciprofloxacin renal clearance and a 50% increase in its concentration in the systemic circulation. Although bile concentrations of ciprofloxacin are several fold higher than serum concentrations after oral dosing with the immediate-release tablet, only a small amount of the dose administered is recovered from the bile as unchanged drug. An additional 1% to 2% of the dose is recovered from the bile in the form of metabolites. Approximately 20% to 35% of an oral dose of immediate-release ciprofloxacin is recovered from the feces within 5 days after dosing. This may arise from either biliary clearance or transintestinal elimination.
Pharmacokinetic studies of the immediate-release oral tablet (single dose) and intravenous (single and multiple dose) forms of ciprofloxacin indicate that plasma concentrations of ciprofloxacin are higher in elderly subjects (>65 years) as compared to young adults. Cmax is increased 16% to 40%, and mean AUC is increased approximately 30%, which can be at least partially attributed to decreased renal clearance in the elderly. Elimination half-life is only slightly (~20%) prolonged in the elderly. These differences are not considered clinically significant. (See PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use.)
In patients with reduced renal function, the half-life of ciprofloxacin is slightly prolonged. No dose adjustment is required for patients with uncomplicated urinary tract infections receiving 500 mg ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets. For complicated urinary tract infection and acute uncomplicated pyelonephritis, where 1000 mg is the appropriate dose, the dosage of ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets should be reduced to ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets 500 mg q24h in patients with creatinine clearance equal to or below 30 mL/min. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
In studies in patients with stable chronic cirrhosis, no significant changes in ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics have been observed. The kinetics of ciprofloxacin in patients with acute hepatic insufficiency, however, have not been fully elucidated. (See DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
Concomitant administration with tizanidine is contraindicated. (See CONTRAINDICATIONS). Previous studies with immediate-release ciprofloxacin have shown that concomitant administration of ciprofloxacin with theophylline decreases the clearance of theophylline resulting in elevated serum theophylline levels and increased risk of a patient developing CNS or other adverse reactions. Ciprofloxacin also decreases caffeine clearance and inhibits the formation of paraxanthine after caffeine administration. Absorption of ciprofloxacin is significantly reduced by concomitant administration of multivalent cation-containing products such as magnesium/aluminum antacids, sucralfate, VIDEX® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric powder, or products containing calcium, iron, or zinc. (See WARNINGS: PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions and Information for Patients, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
When ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets given as a single 1000 mg dose was administered two hours before, or four hours after a magnesium/aluminum-containing antacid (900 mg aluminum hydroxide and 600 mg magnesium hydroxide as a single oral dose) to 18 healthy volunteers, there was a 4% and 19% reduction, respectively, in the mean Cmax of ciprofloxacin. The reduction in the mean AUC was 24% and 26%, respectively. Ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets should be administered at least 2 hours before or 6 hours after antacids containing magnesium or aluminum, as well as sucralfate, VIDEX® (didanosine) chewable/buffered tablets or pediatric powder, other highly buffered drugs, metal cations such as iron, and multivitamin preparations with zinc. Although ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets may be taken with meals that include milk, concomitant administration with dairy products or with calcium-fortified juices alone should be avoided, since decreased absorption is possible. (See PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients and Drug Interactions, and DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION.)
When ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets were administered as a single 1000 mg dose concomitantly with omeprazole (40 mg once daily for three days) to 18 healthy volunteers, the mean AUC and Cmax of ciprofloxacin were reduced by 20% and 23%, respectively. The clinical significance of this interaction has not been determined. (See PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions.)
The bactericidal action of ciprofloxacin results from inhibition of the enzymes topoisomerase II (DNA gyrase) and topoisomerase IV (both Type II topoisomerases), which are required for bacterial DNA replication, transcription, repair, and recombination.
The mechanism of action of fluoroquinolones, including ciprofloxacin, is different from that of other antimicrobial agents such as beta-lactams, macrolides, tetracyclines, or aminoglycosides; therefore, microorganisms resistant to these classes of drugs may be susceptible to ciprofloxacin. Resistance to fluoroquinolones occurs primarily by either mutations in the DNA gyrases, decreased outer membrane permeability, or drug efflux. In vitro resistance to ciprofloxacin develops slowly by multiple step mutations. Resistance to ciprofloxacin due to spontaneous mutations occurs at a general frequency of between < 10-9 to 1×10-6.
There is no known cross-resistance between ciprofloxacin and other classes of antimicrobials.
Ciprofloxacin has been shown to be active against most isolates of the following bacteria, both in vitro and in clinical infections as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section of the package insert for ciprofloxacin extended-release tablets.
Gram-positive bacteria Enterococcus faecalis
Proteus mirabilis Pseudomonas aeruginosa
The following in vitro data are available, but their clinical significance is unknown. At least 90 percent of the following bacteria exhibit an in vitro minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) less than or equal to the susceptible breakpoint for ciprofloxacin (≤1 mcg/mL). However, the efficacy of ciprofloxacin in treating clinical infections due to these bacteria has not been established in adequate and well-controlled clinical trials.
|Citrobacter koseri||Morganella morganii|
|Citrobacter freundii||Proteus vulgaris|
|Edwardsiella tarda||Providencia rettgeri|
|Enterobacter aerogenes||Providencia stuartii|
|Enterobacter cloacae||Serratia marcescens|
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