Cisatracurium Besylate (Page 4 of 9)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following events have been identified during post-approval use of cisatracurium besylate in conjunction with one or more anesthetic agents in clinical practice. Because they are reported voluntarily from a population of unknown size, estimates of frequency cannot be made. These events have been chosen for inclusion due to a combination of their seriousness, frequency of reporting, or potential causal connection to cisatracurium besylate: anaphylaxis, histamine release, prolonged neuromuscular block, muscle weakness, myopathy.

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

7.1 Clinically Significant Drug Interactions

Table 4 displays clinically significant drug interactions with cisatracurium besylate.

Table 4. Clinically Significant Drug Interactions with Cisatracurium Besylate

* The use of peripheral nerve stimulator is strongly recommended to evaluate the level of neuromuscular blockade, to assess the need for additional doses of cisatracurium besylate, and to determine whether adjustments need to be made to the dose with subsequent administration.

Examples: aminoglycosides, tetracyclines, bacitracin, polymyxins, lincomycin, clindamycin, colistin, sodium colistimethate

Drug or Drug Class Clinical Implications *
Succinylcholine The use of succinylcholine prior to cisatracurium besylate administration may decrease the time to onset of maximum neuromuscular blockade but has no effect on the duration of neuromuscular blockade.
Inhalational Anesthetics Administration of inhalational anesthetics with nitrous oxide/oxygen for greater than 30 minutes to achieve 1.25 Minimum Alveolar Concentration (MAC) may prolong the duration of action of initial and maintenance doses of cisatracurium besylate. This may potentiate the neuromuscular blockade.
Antibiotics Local anestheticsMagnesium saltsProcainamideLithiumQuinidine May prolong the neuromuscular blockade action of cisatracurium besylate
Phenytoin, Carbamazepine May increase resistance to the neuromuscular blockade action of cisatracurium besylate resulting in shorter durations of neuromuscular blockade and infusion rate requirements may be higher.

7.2 Drugs Without Clinically Significant Drug Interactions With Cisatracurium Besylate

In clinical studies, propofol had no effect on the duration of action or dosing requirements for cisatracurium besylate. Cisatracurium besylate is not compatible with propofol for Y-site administration.

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

There are no adequate and well-controlled studies of cisatracurium besylate in pregnant women. Animal studies conducted in rats administered cisatracurium besylate during organogenesis found no evidence of fetal harm at 0.8 times (ventilated rats) the exposure from a human starting IV bolus dose of 0.2 mg/kg. The background risk for major birth defects and miscarriage in the indicated population is unknown. All pregnancies have a background risk of birth defect, loss, or other adverse outcomes. In the U.S. general population, the estimated background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage in clinically recognized pregnancies is 2 to 4% and 15 to 20%, respectively.

Clinical Considerations

Labor or Delivery

The action of neuromuscular blocking agents may be enhanced by magnesium salts administered for the management of preeclampsia or eclampsia of pregnancy.

Data

Animal Data

Two embryofetal developmental reproductive toxicity studies were conducted in rats. In a non-ventilated rat study, pregnant animals were treated with cisatracurium besylate subcutaneously twice per day from Gestational Day 6 to 15 using subparalyzing doses (2 and 4 mg/kg daily; equivalent to 6- and 12-times, respectively, the AUC exposure in humans following a bolus dose of 0.2 mg/kg IV). In the ventilated rat study, pregnant animals were treated with cisatracurium besylate intravenously once a day between Gestational Day 6 to 15 using paralyzing doses (0.5 and 1 mg/kg; equivalent to 0.4- and 0.8-times, respectively, the exposure in humans following a bolus dose of 0.2 mg/kg IV based on mg/m2 comparison). Neither of these studies revealed maternal or fetal toxicity or teratogenic effects.

8.2 Lactation

It is not known whether cisatracurium besylate is present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for cisatracurium besylate and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from cisatracurium besylate or from the underlying maternal condition.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and effectiveness of cisatracurium besylate as an adjunct to general anesthesia to facilitate tracheal intubation, and to provide skeletal muscle relaxation during surgery in pediatric patients 1 month through 12 years of age were established from three studies in pediatric patients [see Dosage and Administration (2.2, 2.5) and Clinical Studies (14.2)]. The three open-label studies are summarized below.

The safety and effectiveness of cisatracurium besylate have not been established in pediatric patients less than 1 month of age.

Tracheal Intubation

A study of 0.15 mg/kg cisatracurium besylate evaluated 230 pediatric patients (ages 1 month to 12 years). Excellent or good intubating conditions were produced 120 seconds following 0.15 mg/kg of cisatracurium besylate in 88 of 90 of patients induced with halothane and in 85 of 90 of patients induced with thiopentone and fentanyl. The study also evaluated 50 pediatric patients during opioid anesthesia, with maximum neuromuscular blockade achieved in an average of about 3 minutes and a clinically effective block for 36 minutes in patients ages 2 to 12 years, and maximum neuromuscular block in about 2 minutes and a clinically effective block for about 43 minutes in infants 1 to 23 months [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

In a study of 0.1 mg/kg cisatracurium besylate administered in 16 pediatric patients (ages 2 to 12 years) during opioid/nitrous oxide/oxygen anesthesia, maximum neuromuscular blockade was achieved in an average of 2.8 minutes with a clinically effective block for 28 minutes [see Clinical Studies (14.2)].

Skeletal Muscle Relaxation During Surgery

In a study of cisatracurium besylate administered during halothane/nitrous oxide/oxygen anesthesia, 18 pediatric patients (ages 2 to 12 years) were scheduled for surgical procedures that required neuromuscular block for 60 minutes or longer. The average duration of continuous infusion was 62.8 minutes (range: 17 to 145 minutes). The overall mean infusion rate for 9 patients whose infusion was 45 minutes or longer was 1.7 mcg/kg/minute (range: 1.19 to 2.14 mcg/kg/minute).

Serious Adverse Reactions in Infants Due to Benzyl Alcohol Preservative in 10 mL Multiple-Dose Vials

Serious adverse reactions including fatal reactions and the “gasping syndrome” occurred in premature neonates and infants in the neonatal intensive care unit who received drugs containing benzyl alcohol as a preservative. In these cases, benzyl alcohol dosages of 99 to 234 mg/kg/day produced high levels of benzyl alcohol and its metabolites in the blood and urine (blood levels of benzyl alcohol were 0.61 to 1.378 mmol/L). Additional adverse reactions included gradual neurological deterioration, seizures, intracranial hemorrhage, hematologic abnormalities, skin breakdown, hepatic and renal failure, hypotension, bradycardia, and cardiovascular collapse. Preterm, low-birth weight infants may be more likely to develop these reactions because they may be less able to metabolize benzyl alcohol.

When prescribing the 10 mL multiple-dose cisatracurium besylate vials in infants consider the combined daily metabolic load of benzyl alcohol from all sources including cisatracurium besylate (multiple-dose vials contain 9 mg of benzyl alcohol per mL) and other drugs containing benzyl alcohol. The minimum amount of benzyl alcohol at which serious adverse reactions may occur is not known [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)]. This warning is not applicable to the 5 mL and 20 mL cisatracurium besylate single-dose vials because these vials do not contain benzyl alcohol.

The use of 10 mL cisatracurium besylate multiple-dose vials is contraindicated in pediatric patients less than 1 month of age and low birth-weight infants because these patients are more likely to develop benzyl alcohol toxicity.

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