Cisplatin (Page 3 of 5)

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

The following drug interactions are described in other sections:

Nephrotoxic drugs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]
Ototoxic drugs [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)]

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Risk Summary

Based on human data from published literature, cisplatin for injection can cause fetal harm when administered to pregnant women. Advise pregnant women and females of reproductive potential of the potential risk to a fetus. Data demonstrates transplacental transfer of cisplatin. Exposure of pregnant women to cisplatin-containing chemotherapy has been associated with oligohydramnios, intrauterine growth restriction, and preterm birth. Cases of neonatal acute respiratory distress syndrome, cytopenias, and hearing loss have been reported. Cisplatin for injection administration to animals during and after organogenesis resulted in teratogenicity. A published study in mice showed placental transfer of cisplatin increased with placenta maturation.

The background risk of major birth defects and miscarriage for the indicated populations are unknown. However, the background risk in the U.S. general population of major birth defects is 2-4% and of miscarriage is 15-20% of clinically recognized pregnancies.

8.2 Lactation

Risk Summary

Limited data from published literature report the presence of cisplatin in human milk in low amounts. Because of the potential for serious adverse reactions from cisplatin for injection in a breastfed child and because of the potential for tumorigenicity shown for cisplatin for injection, advise lactating women not to breastfeed during treatment with cisplatin for injection.

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Pregnancy Testing

Verify the pregnancy status of females of reproductive potential prior to initiation of cisplatin for injection.

Contraception

Females

Cisplatin for injection can cause fetal harm when administered to a pregnant woman [see Use in Specific Populations (8.1)]. Advise females of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 14 months following the last dose of cisplatin for injection.

Males

Advise male patients with female partners of reproductive potential to use effective contraception during treatment and for 11 months after the last dose of cisplatin for injection.

Infertility

Females

The use of cisplatin has been associated with cumulative dose-dependent ovarian failure, premature menopause, and reduced fertility.

Males

The use of cisplatin has been associated with a cumulative dose-dependent impairment of spermatogenesis (oligospermia, azoospermia; possibly irreversible) and reduced fertility.

8.4 Pediatric Use

Ototoxic effects may be more severe and detrimental in pediatric patients receiving cisplatin for injection, particularly in patients less than 5 years of age. Consider audiometric and vestibular function monitoring in all patients receiving cisplatin for injection. The prevalence of hearing loss in pediatric patients is particularly high and is estimated to be 40% to 60%.

Earlier detection of hearing loss can limit the potential impact of hearing impairment on a pediatric patient’s cognitive and social development [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6)].

8.5 Geriatric Use

For the treatment of metastatic testicular tumors or advanced bladder cancer, clinical studies of cisplatin for injection did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. In four clinical trials of combination chemotherapy for advanced ovarian carcinoma, 1,484 patients received cisplatin either in combination with cyclophosphamide or with paclitaxel. Of these, 426 (29%) were older than 65 years. In these trials, age was not found to be a prognostic factor for survival. However, in a later secondary analysis for one of these trials, geriatric patients were found to have shorter survival compared with younger patients.

In all four trials, geriatric patients experienced more severe neutropenia than did younger patients. Higher incidences of severe thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were also seen in geriatric patients compared with younger patients, although not in all cisplatin-containing treatment arms. In the two trials where nonhematologic toxicity was evaluated according to age, geriatric patients had a numerically higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy than did younger patients. Other reported clinical experience suggests that geriatric patients may be more susceptible to nephrotoxicity, myelosuppression, and infectious complications than are younger patients [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1, 5.2, 5.4)].

Cisplatin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and renal function should be monitored.

8.6 Use in Patients with Renal Impairment

Patients with baseline renal impairment may be more susceptible to nephrotoxicity [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Ensure adequate hydration before, during, and after cisplatin for injection administration [see Dosage and Administration (2.1)]. Measure serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine clearance, and serum electrolytes prior to initiating therapy, and as clinically indicated. Consider alternative treatments or reduce the dose of cisplatin for injection for patients with baseline renal impairment or who develop significant reductions in creatinine clearance during treatment with cisplatin for injection according to clinical treatment guidelines [see Dosage and Administration (2.5)].

10 OVERDOSAGE

Acute overdosage with cisplatin for injection may result in renal failure, hepatic failure, hearing loss, ocular toxicity, myelosuppression, nausea and vomiting, and neuritis. In addition, death can occur following overdosage.

Management of overdosage should include general supportive measures to sustain the patient through any period of toxicity that may occur. Important measures include renal protection by intravenous hydration with or without the use of an osmotic diuretic. Hemodialysis is not effective because of the high degree of protein binding of cisplatin for injection. Plasmapheresis has been used to treat cases of cisplatin for injection overdosage, but the optimal treatment regimen has not been established.

For current information on the management of poisoning or overdosage, contact the National Poison Control Center at 1-800-222-1222 or www.poison.org.

11 DESCRIPTION

Cisplatin for injection, USP, a platinum-based drug for intravenous use, is a white to light yellow lyophilized powder. Each vial of Cisplatin for injection, USP contains 50 mg cisplatin, 450 mg Sodium Chloride, USP, and 500 mg Mannitol, USP. Cisplatin for Injection, USP may contain hydrochloric acid for pH adjustment.

Cisplatin, the active ingredient in Cisplatin for injection, USP, is a yellow to orange crystalline powder with the molecular formula Cl2 H6 N2 Pt and a molecular weight of 300.05. Cisplatin is a heavy metal complex containing a central atom of platinum surrounded by two chloride atoms and two ammonia molecules in the cis position. It is soluble in water or saline at 1 mg/mL and in dimethylformamide at 24 mg/mL. It has a melting point of 207°C.

The structural formula is:

structural formula
(click image for full-size original)

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