Peripheral blood counts should be monitored weekly. Liver function should be monitored periodically. Neurologic examination should also be performed regularly (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Plasma levels of anticonvulsant agents may become subtherapeutic during cisplatin therapy.
In a randomized trial in advanced ovarian cancer, response duration was adversely affected when pyridoxine was used in combination with altretamine (hexamethylmelamine) and cisplatin.
Carcinogenesis, Mutagenesis, Impairment of Fertility
Pregnancy Category D
Cisplatin has been reported to be found in human milk; patients receiving cisplatin should not breast-feed.
Safety and effectiveness in pediatric patients have not been established. All children should have audiometric monitoring performed prior to initiation of therapy, prior to each subsequent dose, and for several years post therapy. Advanced testing methods may allow for earlier detection of hearing loss in an attempt to facilitate the rapid initiation of interventions that can limit the potential adverse impact of hearing impairment on a child’s cognitive and social development.
Insufficient data are available from clinical trials of cisplatin in the treatment of metastatic testicular tumors or advanced bladder cancer to determine whether elderly patients respond differently than younger patients. In four clinical trials of combination chemotherapy for advanced ovarian carcinoma, 1484 patients received cisplatin either in combination with cyclophosphamide or paclitaxel. Of these, 426 (29%) were older than 65 years. In these trials, age was not found to be a prognostic factor for survival. However, in a later secondary analysis for one of these trials, elderly patients were found to have shorter survival compared with younger patients. In all four trials, elderly patients experienced more severe neutropenia than younger patients. Higher incidences of severe thrombocytopenia and leukopenia were also seen in elderly compared with younger patients, although not in all cisplatin-containing treatment arms. In the two trials where nonhematologic toxicity was evaluated according to age, elderly patients had a numerically higher incidence of peripheral neuropathy than younger patients. Other reported clinical experience suggests that elderly patients may be more susceptible to myelosuppression, infectious complications, and nephrotoxicity than younger patients.
Cisplatin is known to be substantially excreted by the kidney and is contraindicated in patients with pre-existing renal impairment. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and renal function should be monitored.
Dose-related and cumulative renal insufficiency, including acute renal failure, is the major dose-limiting toxicity of cisplatin. Renal toxicity has been noted in 28% to 36% ofpatients treated with a single dose of 50 mg/m2. It is first noted during the second week after a dose and is manifested by elevations in BUN and creatinine, serum uric acid and/or a decrease in creatinine clearance. Renal toxicity becomes more prolonged and severe with repeated courses of the drug. Renal function must return to normal before another dose of cisplatin can be given. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to nephrotoxicity (see PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use ).
Impairment of renal function has been associated with renal tubular damage. The administration of cisplatin using a 6 hour to 8 hour infusion with intravenous hydration, and mannitol has been used to reduce nephrotoxicity. However, renal toxicity still can occur after utilization of these procedures.
Ototoxicity has been observed in up to 31% of patients treated with a single dose of cisplatin 50 mg/m2 , and is manifested by tinnitus and/or hearing loss in the high frequency range (4,000 to 8,000 Hz). The prevalence of hearing loss in children is particularly high and is estimated to be 40 to 60%. Decreased ability to hear normal conversational tones may occur. Deafness after the initial dose of cisplatin has been reported. Ototoxic effects may be more severe in children receiving cisplatin.
Hearing loss can be unilateral or bilateral and tends to become more frequent and severe with repeated cisplatin doses. It is unclear whether cisplatin-induced ototoxicity is reversible. Vestibular toxicity has also been reported. Ototoxic effects may be related to the peak plasma concentration of cisplatin. Ototoxicity can occur during treatment or be delayed. Audiometric monitoring should be performed prior to initiation of therapy, prior to each subsequent dose, and for several years post therapy.
The risk of ototoxicity may be increased by prior or simultaneous cranial irradiation, and may be more severe in patients less than 5 years of age, patients being treated with other ototoxic drugs (e.g., aminoglycosides and vancomycin), and in patients with renal impairment.
Genetic factors (e.g., variants in the thiopurine S-methyltransferase [TPMT] gene) may contribute to cisplatin-induced ototoxicity; although this association has not been consistent across populations and study designs.
Myelosuppression occurs in 25% to 30% of patients treated with cisplatin. The nadirs in circulating platelets and leukocytes occur between days 18 to 23 (range 7.5 to 45) with most patients recovering by day 39 (range 13 to 62). Leukopenia and thrombocytopenia are more pronounced at higher doses (>50 mg/m2). Anemia (decrease of 2 g hemoglobin/100 mL) occurs at approximately the same frequency and with the same timing as leukopenia and thrombocytopenia. Fever and infection have also been reported in patients with neutropenia. Potential fatalities due to infection (secondary to myelosuppression) have been reported. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to myelosuppression (see PRECAUTIONS , Geriatric Use ).
In addition to anemia secondary to myelosuppression, a Coombs’ positive hemolytic anemia has been reported. In the presence of cisplatin hemolytic anemia, a further course of treatment may be accompanied by increased hemolysis and this risk should be weighed by the treating physician.
The development of acute leukemia coincident with the use of cisplatin has been reported. In these reports, cisplatin was generally given in combination with other leukemogenic agents.
Marked nausea and vomiting occur in almost all patients treated with cisplatin, and may be so severe that the drug must be discontinued. Nausea and vomiting may begin within 1 hour to 4 hours after treatment and last up to 24 hours. Various degrees of vomiting, nausea and/or anorexia may persist for up to 1 week after treatment.
Delayed nausea and vomiting (begins or persists 24 hours or more after chemotherapy) has occurred in patients attaining complete emetic control on the day of cisplatin therapy.
Diarrhea has also been reported.
To report SUSPECTED ADVERSE REACTIONS, contact Gland Pharma at 864-879-9994 or FDA at 1-800-FDA-1088 or www.fda.gov/medwatch.
Vascular toxicities coincident with the use of cisplatin in combination with other antineoplastic agents have been reported. The events are clinically heterogeneous and may include myocardial infarction, cerebrovascular accident, thrombotic microangiopathy (hemolytic-uremic syndrome [HUS]), or cerebral arteritis. Various mechanisms have been proposed for these vascular complications. There are also reports of Raynaud’s phenomenon occurring in patients treated with the combination of bleomycin, vinblastine with or without cisplatin. It has been suggested that hypomagnesemia developing coincident with the use of cisplatin may be an added, although not essential, factor associated with this event. However, it is currently unknown if the cause of Raynaud’s phenomenon in these cases is the disease, underlying vascular compromise, bleomycin, vinblastine, hypomagnesemia, or a combination of any of these factors.
Serum Electrolyte Disturbances
Hypomagnesemia, hypocalcemia, hyponatremia, hypokalemia, and hypophosphatemia have been reported to occur in patients treated with cisplatin and are probably related to renal tubular damage. Tetany has been reported in those patients with hypocalcemia and hypomagnesemia. Generally, normal serum electrolyte levels are restored by administering supplemental electrolytes and discontinuing cisplatin.
Inappropriate antidiuretic hormone syndrome has also been reported.
Hyperuricemia has been reported to occur at approximately the same frequency as the increases in BUN and serum creatinine.
It is more pronounced after doses greater than 50 mg/m2 , and peak levels of uric acid generally occur between 3 to 5 days after the dose. Allopurinol therapy for hyperuricemia effectively reduces uric acid levels.
Neurotoxicity, usually characterized by peripheral neuropathies, has been reported. The neuropathies usually occur after prolonged therapy (4 to 7 months); however, neurologic symptoms have been reported to occur after a single dose. Although symptoms and signs of cisplatin neuropathy usually develop during treatment, symptoms of neuropathy may begin 3 to 8 weeks after the last dose of cisplatin. Cisplatin therapy should be discontinued when the symptoms are first observed. The neuropathy, however, may progress further even after stopping treatment. Preliminary evidence suggests peripheral neuropathy may be irreversible in some patients. Elderly patients may be more susceptible to peripheral neuropathy (see PRECAUTIONS, Geriatric Use ).
Lhermitte’s sign, dorsal column myelopathy, and autonomic neuropathy have also been reported.
Loss of taste, seizures, leukoencephalopathy, and reversible posterior leukoencephalopathy syndrome (RPLS) have also been reported.
Muscle cramps, defined as localized, painful, involuntary skeletal muscle contractions of sudden onset and short duration, have been reported and were usually associated in patients receiving a relatively high cumulative dose of cisplatin and with a relatively advanced symptomatic stage of peripheral neuropathy.
Optic neuritis, papilledema, and cerebral blindness have been reported in patients receiving standard recommended doses of cisplatin. Improvement and/or total recovery usually occurs after discontinuing cisplatin. Steroids with or without Mannitol have been used; however, efficacy has not been established.
Blurred vision and altered color perception have been reported after the use of regimens with higher doses of cisplatin or greater dose frequencies than recommended in the package insert. The altered color perception manifests as a loss of color discrimination, particularly in the blue-yellow axis. The only finding on funduscopic exam is irregular retinal pigmentation of the macular area.
Anaphylactic-like reactions have been reported in patients previously exposed to cisplatin. The reactions consist of facial edema, wheezing, tachycardia, and hypotension within a few minutes of drug administration. Reactions may be controlled by intravenous epinephrine with corticosteroids and/or antihistamines as indicated. Patients receiving cisplatin should be observed carefully for possible anaphylactic-like reactions and supportive equipment and medication should be available to treat such a complication.
Transient elevations of liver enzymes, especially SGOT, as well as bilirubin, have been reported to be associated with cisplatin administration at the recommended doses.
Cardiac abnormalities, hiccups, elevated serum amylase, rash, alopecia, malaise, asthenia, and dehydration have been reported.
Local soft tissue toxicity has been reported following extravasation of cisplatin. Severity of the local tissue toxicity appears to be related to the concentration of the cisplatin solution. Infusion of solutions with a cisplatin concentration greater than 0.5 mg/mL may result in tissue cellulitis, fibrosis, necrosis, pain, edema, and erythema.
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