CITANEST FORTE DENTAL- prilocaine hydrochloride and epinephrine bitartrate injection, solution
Dentsply Pharmaceutical Inc.
For Local Anesthesia in Dentistry
4% Citanest® Forte DENTAL with Epinephrine 1:200,000 (Citanest Forte), Prilocaine HCl 4% (72 mg/1.8 mL) (40 mg/mL) with Epinephrine 1:200,000 Injection, is a sterile, non-pyrogenic isotonic solution that contains a local anesthetic agent with epinephrine (as bitartrate) and is administered parenterally by injection. See INDICATIONS AND USAGE for specific uses. The quantitative composition is shown in Table 1.
Citanest Forte contains prilocaine HCl, which is chemically designated as propanamide, N-(2-methyl-phenyl) -2- (propylamino)-, monohydrochloride and has the following structural formula:
C13 H20 N2 O ∙ HCl molecular wt = 256.77
and epinephrine, which is (-) -3, 4-Dihydroxy- ∝ -[(methylamino) methyl] benzyl alcohol and has the following structural formula:
C9 H13 NO3 molecular wt = 183.21
Parenteral drug products should be inspected visually for particulate matter and discoloration prior to administration.
The specific quantitative composition is shown in Table 1.
|Prilocaine HCl||Epinephrine (as bitartrate)||Citric Acid||Sodium Metabisulfite||pH|
|Note: Sodium hydroxide and/or hydrochloric acid may be used to adjust the pH of Citanest Forte.|
|4% Citanest® Forte DENTAL with Epinephrine 1:200,000 (Prilocaine HCl 4% (72 mg/1.8 mL) (40 mg/mL) with Epinephrine 1:200,000 Injection)||40.0||0.005||0.2||0.5||3.3 to 5.5|
Prilocaine stabilizes the neuronal membrane by inhibiting the ionic fluxes required for the initiation and conduction of impulses, thereby effecting local anesthetic action.
When used for infiltration injection in dental patients, the time of onset of anesthesia averages less than 2 minutes with an average duration of soft tissue anesthesia of approximately 2¼ hours.
When used for inferior alveolar nerve block, the time of onset averages less than three minutes with an average duration of soft tissue anesthesia of approximately 3 hours.
Excessive blood levels may cause changes in cardiac output, total peripheral resistance, and mean arterial pressure.
These changes may be attributable to a direct depressant effect of the local anesthetic agent on various components of the cardiovascular system and/or the beta-adrenergic receptor stimulating action of epinephrine.
Pharmacokinetics and Metabolism
Information derived from diverse formulations, concentrations and usages reveals that prilocaine is completely absorbed following parenteral administration, its rate of absorption depending, for example, upon such factors as the site of administration and the presence or absence of a vasoconstrictor agent. Prilocaine is metabolized in both the liver and the kidney and excreted via the kidney. It is not metabolized by plasma esterases. Hydrolysis of prilocaine by amidases yields ortho-toluidine and n-proylalanine. Both of these compounds may undergo ring hydroxylation.
O-toluidine has been found to produce methemoglobin, both in vitro and in vivo (see ADVERSE REACTIONS).
Because prilocaine is metabolized in both the liver and kidneys, hepatic and renal dysfunction may alter prilocaine kinetics.
As with other local anesthetic agents, the plasma binding of prilocaine may be dependent on drug concentration. At 0.5 to 1.0 mg/mL it is 55% protein bound.
Prilocaine crosses the blood-brain and placental barriers, presumably by passive diffusion.
Factors such as acidosis and the use of CNS stimulants and depressants affect the CNS levels of prilocaine required to produce overt systemic effects. In the rhesus monkey, arterial blood levels of 20 mg/mL have been shown to be the threshold for convulsive activity.
Citanest Forte is indicated for the production of local anesthesia in dentistry by nerve block or infiltration techniques. Only accepted procedures for these techniques as described in standard textbooks are recommended.
Prilocaine is contraindicated in patients with a known history of hypersensitivity to local anesthetics of the amide type and in those rare patients with congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia.
DENTAL PRACTITIONERS WHO EMPLOY LOCAL ANESTHETIC AGENTS SHOULD BE WELL VERSED IN DIAGNOSIS AND MANAGEMENT OF EMERGENCIES THAT MAY ARISE FROM THEIR USE. RESUSCITATIVE EQUIPMENT, OXYGEN AND OTHER RESUSCITATIVE DRUGS SHOULD BE AVAILABLE FOR IMMEDIATE USE.
Cases of methemoglobinemia have been reported in association with local anesthetic use. Although all patients are at risk for methemoglobinemia, patients with glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase deficiency, congenital or idiopathic methemoglobinemia, cardiac or pulmonary compromise, infants under 6 months of age, and concurrent exposure to oxidizing agents or their metabolites are more susceptible to developing clinical manifestations of the condition. If local anesthetics must be used in these patients, close monitoring for symptoms and signs of methemoglobinemia is recommended.
Signs of methemoglobinemia may occur immediately or may be delayed some hours after exposure, and are characterized by a cyanotic skin discoloration and/or abnormal coloration of the blood. Methemoglobin levels may continue to rise; therefore, immediate treatment is required to avert more serious central nervous system and cardiovascular adverse effects, including seizures, coma, arrhythmias, and death. Discontinue CITANEST FORTE and any other oxidizing agents. Depending on the severity of the signs and symptoms, patients may respond to supportive care, i.e., oxygen therapy, hydration. A more severe clinical presentation may require treatment with methylene blue exchange transfusion, or hyperbaric oxygen.
To minimize the likelihood of intravascular injection, aspiration should be performed before the local anesthetic solution is injected. If blood is aspirated, the needle must be repositioned until no return of blood can be elicited by aspiration. Note, however, that the absence of blood in the syringe does not assure that intravascular injection will be avoided.
Citanest Forte contains sodium metabisulfite, a sulfite that may cause allergic-type reactions including anaphylactic symptoms and life-threatening or less severe asthmatic episodes in certain susceptible people. The overall prevalence of sulfite sensitivity in the general population is unknown and probably low. Sulfite sensitivity is seen more frequently in asthmatic than non-asthmatic people.
The safety and effectiveness of prilocaine depend on proper dosage, correct technique, adequate precautions, and readiness for emergencies. Standard textbooks should be consulted for specific techniques and precautions for various regional anesthetic procedures. Resuscitative equipment, oxygen, and other resuscitative drugs should be available for immediate use. (See WARNINGS and ADVERSE REACTIONS.) The lowest dosage that results in effective anesthesia should be used to avoid high plasma levels and serious adverse effects. Repeated doses of prilocaine may cause significant increases in blood levels with each repeated dose because of slow accumulation of the drug or its metabolites. Tolerance to elevated blood levels varies with the status of the patient. Debilitated, elderly patients, acutely ill patients, and children should be given reduced doses commensurate with their age and physical status. Prilocaine should also be used with caution in patients with severe shock or heart block.
Local anesthetic injections containing a vasoconstrictor should be used cautiously in areas of the body supplied by end arteries or having otherwise compromised blood supply. Patients with peripheral vascular disease and those with hypertensive vascular disease may exhibit exaggerated vasoconstrictor response. Ischemic injury or necrosis may result. Preparations containing a vasoconstrictor should be used with caution in patients during or following the administration of potent general anesthetic agents, since cardiac arrhythmias may occur under such conditions.
Cardiovascular and respiratory (adequacy of ventilation) vital signs and the patient’s state of consciousness should be monitored after each local anesthetic injection. Restlessness, anxiety, tinnitus, dizziness, blurred vision, tremors, depression or drowsiness should alert the practitioner to the possibility of central nervous system toxicity. Signs and symptoms of depressed cardiovascular function may commonly result from a vasovagal reaction, particularly if the patient is in an upright position. (See ADVERSE REACTIONS, Cardiovascular System).
Since amide-type local anesthetics are metabolized by the liver, prilocaine should be used with caution in patients with hepatic disease.
Patients with severe hepatic disease, because of their inability to metabolize local anesthetics normally, are at greater risk of developing toxic plasma concentrations. Prilocaine should also be used with caution in patients with impaired cardiovascular function since they may be less able to compensate for functional changes associated with the prolongation of A-V conduction produced by these drugs.
Many drugs used during the conduct of anesthesia are considered potential triggering agents for familial malignant hyperthermia. Since is not known whether amide-type local anesthetics may trigger this reaction and since the need for supplemental general anesthesia cannot be predicted in advance, it is suggested that a standard protocol for the management of malignant hyperthermia should be available. Early unexplained signs of tachycardia, tachypnea, labile blood pressure and metabolic acidosis may precede temperature elevation. Successful outcome is dependent on early diagnosis, prompt discontinuance of the suspect triggering agent(s) and institution of treatment, including oxygen therapy, indicated supportive measures and dantrolene (consult dantrolene sodium intravenous package insert before using).
Prilocaine should be used with caution in persons with known drug sensitivities. Patients allergic to para-aminobenzoic acid derivatives (procaine, tetracaine, benzocaine, etc.) have not shown cross sensitivity to prilocaine.
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