CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR (Page 3 of 7)

8.3 Females and Males of Reproductive Potential

Infertility

There are no data available on human infertility associated with desloratadine, pseudoephedrine, or the combination. There are no animal fertility studies with the combination or pseudoephedrine alone.

There were no clinically relevant effects of desloratadine on female fertility in rats. A male specific decrease in fertility occurred at an oral desloratadine dose of 12 mg/kg or greater in rats (approximately 65 times the summed AUC-based exposure of desloratadine and its metabolite at the RHD). Male fertility was unaffected at a desloratadine dose of 3 mg/kg (approximately 10 times the summed AUC-based exposure of desloratadine and its metabolite at the RHD). [See Nonclinical Toxicology (13.1).]

8.4 Pediatric Use

CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets are not indicated for use in pediatric patients under 12 years of age.

8.5 Geriatric Use

The number of subjects (n=10) ≥65 years old treated with CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets was too limited to make any formal statistical comparison regarding the efficacy or safety of this drug product in this age group, or to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. Other reported clinical experience has not identified differences between the elderly and younger patients, although the elderly are more likely to have adverse reactions to sympathomimetic amines. In general, dose selection for an elderly patient should be cautious, reflecting the greater frequency of decreased hepatic, renal, or cardiac function, and of concomitant disease or other drug therapy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

Pseudoephedrine, desloratadine, and their metabolites are known to be substantially excreted by the kidney, and the risk of adverse reactions may be greater in patients with renal impairment. Because elderly patients are more likely to have decreased renal function, care should be taken in dose selection, and it may be useful to monitor the patient for adverse events [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.6 Renal Impairment

No studies with CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets were conducted in subjects with renal impairment.

CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets should generally be avoided in patients with renal impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.7 Hepatic Impairment

No studies with CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets or pseudoephedrine were conducted in subjects with hepatic impairment.

CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets should generally be avoided in patients with hepatic impairment [see Warnings and Precautions (5.6) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

8.8 Gender

No clinically significant gender-related differences were observed in the pharmacokinetic parameters of desloratadine, 3-hydroxydesloratadine or pseudoephedrine following administration of CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets.

8.9 Race

No studies have been conducted to evaluate the effect of race on the pharmacokinetics of CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets.

9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

There is no information to indicate that abuse or dependency occurs with CLARINEX or CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets.

10 OVERDOSAGE

In the event of overdose, consider standard measures to remove any unabsorbed drug. Symptomatic and supportive treatment is recommended. Desloratadine and 3-hydroxydesloratadine are not eliminated by hemodialysis.

10.1 Desloratadine

Information regarding acute overdosage with desloratadine is limited to experience from post-marketing adverse event reports and from clinical trials conducted during the development of the CLARINEX product. In the reported cases of overdose, there were no significant adverse events that were attributed to desloratadine. In a dose-ranging trial, at doses of 10 mg and 20 mg/day, somnolence was reported.

In another study, no clinically relevant adverse events were reported in normal male and female volunteers who were given single daily doses of CLARINEX 45 mg for 10 days [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.2)].

10.2 Sympathomimetics

In large doses, sympathomimetics such as pseudoephedrine may give rise to giddiness, headache, nausea, vomiting, sweating, thirst, tachycardia, precordial pain, palpitations, difficulty in micturition, muscle weakness and tenseness, anxiety, restlessness, and insomnia. Many patients can present a toxic psychosis with delusions and hallucinations. Some may develop cardiac arrhythmias, circulatory collapse, convulsions, coma, and respiratory failure.

11 DESCRIPTION

CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets are oval-shaped blue and white bilayer tablets containing 2.5 mg desloratadine in the blue immediate-release layer and 120 mg of pseudoephedrine sulfate USP in the white extended-release layer which is released slowly, allowing for twice-daily administration.

The inactive ingredients contained in CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets are hypromellose USP, microcrystalline cellulose NF, povidone USP, silicon dioxide NF, magnesium stearate NF, corn starch NF, edetate disodium USP, citric acid anhydrous USP, stearic acid NF, and FD&C Blue No. 2 aluminum lake dye.

Desloratadine, 1 of the 2 active ingredients of CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets, is a white to off-white powder that is slightly soluble in water, but very soluble in ethanol and propylene glycol. It has an empirical formula: C19 H19 ClN2 and a molecular weight of 310.8. The chemical name is 8-chloro-6,11-dihydro-11-(4-piperdinylidene)-5H -benzo[5,6] cyclohepta [1,2-b ]pyridine and has the following structure:

Chemical Structure

Pseudoephedrine sulfate, the other active ingredient of CLARINEX-D 12 HOUR Extended Release Tablets, is the synthetic salt of one of the naturally occurring dextrorotatory diastereomers of ephedrine and is classified as an indirect sympathomimetic amine. Pseudoephedrine sulfate is a colorless hygroscopic crystal or white, hygroscopic crystalline powder, practically odorless, with a bitter taste. It is very soluble in water, freely soluble in alcohol, and sparingly soluble in ether. The empirical formula for pseudoephedrine sulfate is (C10 H15 NO)2 • H2 SO4 ; the chemical name is benzenemethanol, α-[1-(methylamino) ethyl]-,[S -(R *,R *)]-, sulfate (2:1)(salt); and the chemical structure is:

Chemical Structure
(click image for full-size original)

12 CLINICAL PHARMACOLOGY

12.1 Mechanism of Action

Desloratadine is a long acting tricyclic histamine antagonist with selective H1 -receptor histamine antagonist activity. Receptor binding data indicate that at a concentration of 2 to 3 ng/mL (7 nanomolar), desloratadine shows significant interaction with the human histamine H1 receptor. Desloratadine inhibited histamine release from human mast cells in vitro. Results of a radiolabeled tissue distribution study in rats and a radioligand H1 -receptor-binding study in guinea pigs showed that desloratadine does not readily cross the blood brain barrier. The clinical significance of this finding is unknown.

Pseudoephedrine sulfate is an orally active sympathomimetic amine and exerts a decongestant action on the nasal mucosa. Pseudoephedrine sulfate is recognized as an effective agent for the relief of nasal congestion due to allergic rhinitis. Pseudoephedrine produces peripheral effects similar to those of ephedrine and central effects similar to, but less intense than, amphetamines. It has the potential for excitatory side effects.

12.2 Pharmacodynamics

Wheal and Flare: Human histamine skin wheal studies following single and repeated 5 mg doses of desloratadine have shown that the drug exhibits an antihistaminic effect by 1 hour; this activity may persist for as long as 24 hours. There was no evidence of histamine-induced skin wheal tachyphylaxis within the desloratadine 5 mg group over the 28-day treatment period. The clinical relevance of histamine wheal skin testing is unknown.

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