CLARITHROMYCIN EXTENDED RELEASE- clarithromycin tablet, film coated, extended release
Ranbaxy Pharmaceuticals Inc.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of clarithromycin extended-release tablets and other antibacterial drugs, clarithromycin extended-release tablets should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Clarithromycin is a semi-synthetic macrolide antibiotic. Chemically, it is 6- 0 -methylerythromycin. The molecular formula is C38 H69 NO13 , and the molecular weight is 747.96. The structural formula is:
Each yellow oval-shaped film-coated clarithromycin extended-release tablet for oral administration contains 1 gram clarithromycin, USP and the following inactive ingredients: ammonium hydroxide, colloidal silicon dioxide, D&C yellow no. 10 aluminum lake, hydroxypropyl cellulose, hypromellose, iron oxide black, lactose monohydrate, magnesium stearate, polyethylene glycol, polysorbate, povidone, propylene glycol, shellac, sodium stearyl fumarate, talc, titanium dioxide.
Clarithromycin is rapidly absorbed from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. The absolute bioavailability of 250 mg clarithromycin tablets was approximately 50%. For a single 500 mg dose of clarithromycin, food slightly delays the onset of clarithromycin absorption, increasing the peak time from approximately 2 to 2.5 hours. Food also increases the clarithromycin peak plasma concentration by about 24%, but does not affect the extent of clarithromycin bioavailability. Food does not affect the onset of formation of the antimicrobially active metabolite, 14-OH clarithromycin or its peak plasma concentration but does slightly decrease the extent of metabolite formation, indicated by an 11% decrease in area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC). Therefore, clarithromycin tablets may be given without regard to food.
In nonfasting healthy human subjects (males and females), peak plasma concentrations were attained within 2 to 3 hours after oral dosing. Steady-state peak plasma clarithromycin concentrations were attained within 3 days and were approximately 1 to 2 mcg/mL with a 250 mg dose administered every 12 hours and 3 to 4 mcg/mL with a 500 mg dose administered every 8 to 12 hours. The elimination half-life of clarithromycin was about 3 to 4 hours with 250 mg administered every 12 hours but increased to 5 to 7 hours with 500 mg administered every 8 to 12 hours. The nonlinearity of clarithromycin pharmacokinetics is slight at the recommended doses of 250 mg and 500 mg administered every 8 to 12 hours. With a 250 mg every 12 hours dosing, the principal metabolite, 14-OH clarithromycin, attains a peak steady-state concentration of about 0.6 mcg/mL and has an elimination half-life of 5 to 6 hours. With a 500 mg every 8 to 12 hours dosing, the peak steady-state concentration of 14-OH clarithromycin is slightly higher (up to 1 mcg/mL), and its elimination half-life is about 7 to 9 hours. With any of these dosing regimens, the steady-state concentration of this metabolite is generally attained within 3 to 4 days.
After a 250 mg tablet every 12 hours, approximately 20% of the dose is excreted in the urine as clarithromycin, while after a 500 mg tablet every 12 hours, the urinary excretion of clarithromycin is somewhat greater, approximately 30%. In comparison, after an oral dose of 250 mg (125 mg/5 mL) suspension every 12 hours, approximately 40% is excreted in urine as clarithromycin. The renal clearance of clarithromycin is, however, relatively independent of the dose size and approximates the normal glomerular filtration rate. The major metabolite found in urine is 14-OH clarithromycin, which accounts for an additional 10% to 15% of the dose with either a 250 mg or a 500 mg tablet administered every 12 hours.
Steady-state concentrations of clarithromycin and 14-OH clarithromycin observed following administration of 500 mg doses of clarithromycin every 12 hours to adult patients with HIV infection were similar to those observed in healthy volunteers. In adult HIV-infected patients taking 500 or 1000 mg doses of clarithromycin every 12 hours, steady-state clarithromycin Cmax values ranged from 2 to 4 mcg/mL and 5 to 10 mcg/mL, respectively.
The steady-state concentrations of clarithromycin in subjects with impaired hepatic function did not differ from those in normal subjects; however, the 14-OH clarithromycin concentrations were lower in the hepatically impaired subjects. The decreased formation of 14-OH clarithromycin was at least partially offset by an increase in renal clearance of clarithromycin in the subjects with impaired hepatic function when compared to healthy subjects.
Clarithromycin and the 14-OH clarithromycin metabolite distribute readily into body tissues and fluids. There are no data available on cerebrospinal fluid penetration. Because of high intracellular concentrations, tissue concentrations are higher than serum concentrations. Examples of tissue and serum concentrations are presented below.
|CONCENTRATION (after 250 mg q12h)|
|Tissue Type||Tissue (mcg/g)||Serum (mcg/mL)|
Clarithromycin extended-release tablets provide extended absorption of clarithromycin from the gastrointestinal tract after oral administration. Relative to an equal total daily dose of immediate-release clarithromycin tablets, clarithromycin extended-release tablets provide lower and later steady-state peak plasma concentrations but equivalent 24-hour AUC’s for both clarithromycin and its microbiologically-active metabolite, 14-OH clarithromycin. While the extent of formation of 14-OH clarithromycin following administration of clarithromycin extended-release tablets (2 x 500 mg once daily) is not affected by food, administration under fasting conditions is associated with approximately 30% lower clarithromycin AUC relative to administration with food. Therefore, clarithromycin extended-release tablets should be taken with food.
In healthy human subjects, steady-state peak plasma clarithromycin concentrations of approximately 2 to 3 mcg/mL were achieved about 5 to 8 hours after oral administration of 2 x 500 mg clarithromycin extended-release tablets once daily; for 14-OH clarithromycin, steady-state peak plasma concentrations of approximately 0.8 mcg/mL were attained about 6 to 9 hours after dosing. Steady-state peak plasma clarithromycin concentrations of approximately 1 to 2 mcg/mL were achieved about 5 to 6 hours after oral administration of a single 500 mg clarithromycin extended-release tablet once daily; for 14-OH clarithromycin, steady-state peak plasma concentrations of approximately 0.6 mcg/mL were attained about 6 hours after dosing.
The following pharmacokinetic data is from Ranbaxy’s study of clarithromycin extended-release tablets 1000 mg and clarithromycin extended-release tablets 500 mg. Clarithromycin extended-release tablets 1000 mg produced blood levels similar to those achieved with the two doses of clarithromycin extended-release tablets 500 mg. Orally administered doses of clarithromycin extended-release tablets 1000 mg result in average peak blood levels of clarithromycin in 10.985 hours and for clarithromycin extended-release tablets 500 mg in 9.588 hours after administration in fasting conditions.
Oral administration of single doses of clarithromycin extended-release tablets 1000 mg and two doses of clarithromycin extended-release tablets 500 mg to 34 adult volunteers yielded the following comparable pharmacokinetic data under fasting conditions.
|Dose¶||ln AUC0-t (ng.h/mL)||Cmax (ng/mL)|
|1000 mg (clarithromycin extended-release)(one tablet)||36645.0248||2188.4419|
|2 x 500 mg (clarithromycin extended-release)(two tablets)||37615.9151||2206.2014|
Orally administered single doses of clarithromycin extended-release tablets 1000 mg result in average peak blood levels in 6.118 hours and two doses of clarithromycin extended-release tablets 500 mg in 6.235 hours after administration under fed conditions. Oral administration of single doses of clarithromycin extended-release tablets 1000 mg and two doses of clarithromycin extended-release tablets 500 mg to 34 adult volunteers yielded the following comparable pharmacokinetic data under fed conditions.
|Dose*||ln AUC0-t (ng.h/mL)||Cmax (ng/mL)|
|1000 mg (clarithromycin extended-release)(one tablet)||58485.5053||3957.2018|
|2 x 500 mg (clarithromycin extended-release)(two tablets)||60796.1185||3478.3286|
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