CLINDAMYCIN PALMITATE HYDROCHLORIDE- clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride granule, for solution
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride for Oral Solution and other antibacterial drugs, Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride for Oral Solution should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by bacteria.
Not for Injection
Boxed Warning section
Clostridium difficile associated diarrhea (CDAD) has been reported with use of nearly all antibacterial agents, including clindamycin and may range in severity from mild diarrhea to fatal colitis. Treatment with antibacterial agents alters the normal flora of the colon leading to overgrowth of C.difficile .
Because clindamycin therapy has been associated with severe colitis which may end fatally, it should be reserved for serious infections where less toxic antimicrobial agents are inappropriate, as described in the INDICATIONS AND USAGE section. It should not be used in patients with nonbacterial infections such as most upper respiratory tract infections. C.difficile produces toxins A and B which contribute to the development of CDAD. Hypertoxin producing strains of C.difficile cause increased morbidity and mortality, as these infections can be refractory to antimicrobial therapy and may require colectomy. CDAD must be considered in all patients who present with diarrhea following antibiotic use. Careful medical history is necessary since CDAD has been reported to occur over two months after the administration of antibacterial agents. If CDAD is suspected or confirmed, ongoing antibiotic use not directed against C.difficile may need to be discontinued. Appropriate fluid and electrolyte management, protein supplementation, antibiotic treatment of C.difficile , and surgical evaluation should be instituted as clinically indicated.
Clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride is a water soluble hydrochloride salt of the ester of clindamycin and palmitic acid. Clindamycin is a semisynthetic antibiotic produced by a 7(S)-chloro-substitution of the 7(R)-hydroxyl group of the parent compound lincomycin. The structural formula is represented below:
The chemical name for clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride is Methyl 7-chloro-6, 7, 8-trideoxy-6-(1-methyl- trans -4-propyl-L-2-pyrrolidinecarboxamido)-1-thio-L- threo -α-D- galacto -octopyranoside 2-palmitate monohydrochloride.
Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride for Oral Solution, USP contains clindamycin palmitate hydrochloride for reconstitution. Each 5 mL contains the equivalent of 75 mg clindamycin. Inactive ingredients: artificial cherry flavor, dextrin, ethylparaben, poloxamer 188, simethicone, sucrose.
Although clindamycin palmitate HCl is inactive in vitro , rapid in vivo hydrolysis converts this compound to the antibacterially active clindamycin.
Clindamycin has been shown to have in vitro activity against isolates of the following organisms:
Aerobic gram positive cocci , including:
(penicillinase and non-penicillinase producing strains). When tested by in vitro methods some staphylococcal strains originally resistant to erythromycin rapidly develop resistance to clindamycin.
Streptococci (except Streptococcus faecalis )
Anaerobic gram negative bacilli, including:
Bacteroides species (including Bacteroides fragilis group and Bacteroides melaninogenicus group )
Anaerobic gram positive nonsporeforming bacilli, including:
Anaerobic and microaerophilic gram positive cocci , including:
Clostridia: Clostridia are more resistant than most anaerobes to clindamycin.
Most Clostridium perfringens are susceptible, but other species, e.g., Clostridium sporogenes and Clostridium tertium are frequently resistant to clindamycin. Susceptibility testing should be done.
Cross resistance has been demonstrated between clindamycin and lincomycin.
Antagonism has been demonstrated between clindamycin and erythromycin.
Blood level studies comparing clindamycin palmitate HCl with clindamycin hydrochloride show that both drugs reach their peak active serum levels at the same time, indicating a rapid hydrolysis of the palmitate to the clindamycin.
Clindamycin is widely distributed in body fluids and tissues (including bones). Approximately 10% of the biological activity is excreted in the urine. The average serum half-life after doses of Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride for Oral Solution is approximately two hours in pediatric patients.
Serum half-life of clindamycin is increased slightly in patients with markedly reduced renal function. Hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis are not effective in removing clindamycin from the serum.
Serum level studies with clindamycin palmitate HCl in normal pediatric patients weighing 50 to 100 lbs given 2, 3 or 4 mg/kg every 6 hours (8, 12 or 16 mg/kg/day) demonstrated mean peak clindamycin serum levels of 1.24, 2.25 and 2.44 mcg/mL respectively, one hour after the first dose. By the fifth dose, the 6-hour serum concentration had reached equilibrium. Peak serum concentrations after this time would be about 2.46, 2.98 and 3.79 mcg/mL with doses of 8, 12 and 16 mg/kg/day, respectively. Serum levels have been uniform and predictable from person to person and dose to dose. Multiple-dose studies in neonates and infants up to 6 months of age show that the drug does not accumulate in the serum and is excreted rapidly. Serum levels exceed the MICs for most indicated organisms for at least six hours following administration of the usually recommended doses of Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride for Oral Solution in adults and pediatric patients.
No significant levels of clindamycin are attained in the cerebrospinal fluid, even in the presence of inflamed meninges.
Pharmacokinetic studies in elderly volunteers (61 to 79 years) and younger adults (18 to 39 years) indicate that age alone does not alter clindamycin pharmacokinetics (clearance, elimination half-life, volume of distribution, and area under the serum concentration-time curve) after IV administration of clindamycin phosphate. After oral administration of clindamycin hydrochloride, elimination half-life is increased to approximately 4.0 hours (range 3.4 to 5.1 h) in the elderly compared to 3.2 hours (range 2.1 to 4.2 h) in younger adults; administration of clindamycin palmitate HCl resulted in a similar elimination half-life value of about 4.5 hours in elderly subjects. However, the extent of absorption is not different between age groups and no dosage alteration is necessary for the elderly with normal hepatic function and normal (age-adjusted) renal function 1.
INDICATIONS & USAGE
Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride for Oral Solution, USP is indicated in the treatment of serious infections caused by susceptible anaerobic bacteria.
Clindamycin is also indicated in the treatment of serious infections due to susceptible strains of streptococci, pneumococci and staphylococci. Its use should be reserved for penicillin-allergic patients or other patients for whom, in the judgment of the physician, a penicillin is inappropriate. Because of the risk of colitis, as described in the WARNING box, before selecting clindamycin the physician should consider the nature of the infection and the suitability of less toxic alternatives (e.g., erythromycin).
Serious respiratory tract infections such as empyema, anaerobic pneumonitis and lung abscess; serious skin and soft tissue infections; septicemia; intra-abdominal infections such as peritonitis and intra-abdominal abscess (typically resulting from anaerobic organisms resident in the normal gastrointestinal tract); infections of the female pelvis and genital tract such as endometritis, nongonococcal tubo-ovarian abscess, pelvic cellulitis and postsurgical vaginal cuff infection.
Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Serious respiratory tract infections; serious skin and soft tissue infections.
Serious respiratory tract infections. Bacteriologic studies should be performed to determine the causative organisms and their susceptibility to clindamycin.
A standardized disk testing procedure 2 is recommended for determining susceptibility of aerobic bacteria to clindamycin.
For anaerobic bacteria the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) of clindamycin can be determined by agar dilution and broth dilution (including microdilution) techniques. If MICs are not determined routinely, the disk broth method is recommended for routine use. THE KIRBY-BAUER DISK DIFFUSION METHOD AND ITS INTERPRETIVE STANDARDS ARE NOT RECOMMENDED FOR ANAEROBES.
To reduce the development of drug-resistant bacteria and maintain the effectiveness of Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride for Oral Solution, USP and other antibacterial drugs, Clindamycin Palmitate Hydrochloride for Oral Solution, USP should be used only to treat or prevent infections that are proven or strongly suspected to be caused by susceptible bacteria. When culture and susceptibility information are available, they should be considered in selecting or modifying antibacterial therapy. In the absence of such data, local epidemiology and susceptibility patterns may contribute to the empiric selection of therapy.
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