CLOBAZAM

CLOBAZAM- clobazam tablet
Zydus Pharmaceuticals (USA) Inc.

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death [ see W arnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7.1)].

  • Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
  • Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required.
  • Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation

1 INDICATIONS AND USAGE

ClobazamTablets are indicated for the adjunctive treatment of seizures associated with Lennox-Gastaut syndrome (LGS) in patients 2 years of age or older.

2 DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION

2.1 Dosing Information

A daily dose of clobazam tablets greater than 5 mg should be administered in divided doses twice daily; a 5 mg daily dose can be administered as a single dose. Dose patients according to body weight. Individualize dosing within each body weight group, based on clinical efficacy and tolerability. Each dose in Table 1 (e.g., 5 mg to 20 mg in ≤ 30 kg weight group) has been shown to be effective, although effectiveness increases with increasing dose [see Clinical Studies (14)]. Do not proceed with dose escalation more rapidly than weekly, because serum concentrations of clobazam and its active metabolite require 5 and 9 days, respectively, to reach steady-state.

Table 1 Recommended Total Daily Dosing by Weight Group
≤ 30 kg Body Weight > 30 kg Body Weight
Starting Dose 5 mg 10 mg
Starting Day 7 10 mg 20 mg
Starting Day 14 20 mg 40 mg

2.2 Gradual Withdrawal

As with all antiepileptic drugs and benzodiazepines, withdraw clobazam tabelts gradually. Taper by decreasing the total daily dose by 5 mg/day to 10 mg/day on a weekly basis until discontinued [see Warnings and Precautions (5.4)].

2.3 Important Administration Instructions

Clobazam tablets can be taken with or without food.

Clobazam tablets can be administered whole, broken in half along the score, or crushed and mixed in applesauce.

2.4 Dosage Adjustments in Geriatric Patients

Plasma concentrations at any given dose are generally higher in the elderly: proceed slowly with dose escalation. The starting dose should be 5 mg/day for all elderly patients. Then titrate elderly patients according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, an additional titration to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on weight) may be started on day 21 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.5)].

2.5 Dosage Adjustments in CYP2C19 Poor Metabolizers

In CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, levels of N-desmethylclobazam, clobazam’s active metabolite, will be increased. Therefore, in patients known to be CYP2C19 poor metabolizers, the starting dose should be 5 mg/day and dose titration should proceed slowly according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, an additional titration to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on the weight group) may be started on day 21 [see Use in Specific Populations (8.6), Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)].

2.6 Patients with Renal Impairment

No dose adjustment is required for patients with mild and moderate renal impairment. There is no experience with clobazam tablets in patients with severe renal impairment or end stage renal disease (ESRD). It is not known if clobazam or its active metabolite, N-desmethylclobazam, is dialyzable [see Use in Specific Populations (8.7), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

2.7 Dosage Adjustments in Patients with Hepatic Impairment

Clobazam tablets are hepatically metabolized; however, there are limited data to characterize the effect of hepatic impairment on the pharmacokinetics of clobazam tablets. For this reason, proceed slowly with dosing escalations. For patients with mild to moderate hepatic impairment (Child-Pugh score 5 to 9), the starting dose should be 5 mg/day in both weight groups. Then titrate patients according to weight, but to half the dose presented in Table 1, as tolerated. If necessary and based upon clinical response, start an additional titration on day 21 to the maximum dose (20 mg/day or 40 mg/day, depending on the weight group). There is inadequate information about metabolism of clobazam tablets in patients with severe hepatic impairment. Therefore no dosing recommendation in those patients can be given [see Use in Specific Populations (8.8), Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

Tablets: 10 mg and 20 mg with a functional scoreline for oral administration.

Each clobazam tablet is a white to off-white, modified capsule-shaped, biconvex tablet debossed with ’13′ and ’25′ or ’13′ and ’26′ on either side of functional scoreline on one side and plain on other side.

4 CONTRAINDICATIONS

Clobazam tablets are contraindicated in patients with a history of hypersensitivity to the drug or its ingredients. Hypersensitivity reactions have included serious dermatological reactions [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)].

5 WARNINGS AND PRECAUTIONS

5.1 Risks from Concomitant Use with Opioids

Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including clobazam, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of benzodiazepines and opioids for use in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.

Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids alone. If a decision is made to prescribe clobazam concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when clobazam is used with opioids [see Drug Interactions (7.1)].

5.2 Potentiation of Sedation from Concomitant Use with Central Nervous System Depressants

Since clobazam has a central nervous system (CNS) depressant effect, patients or their caregivers should be cautioned against simultaneous use with other CNS depressant drugs or alcohol, and cautioned that the effects of other CNS depressant drugs or alcohol may be potentiated [see Drug Interactions (7.2)].

5.3 Somnolence or Sedation

Clobazam causes somnolence and sedation. In clinical trials, somnolence or sedation was reported at all effective doses and was dose-related.

In general, somnolence and sedation begin within the first month of treatment and may diminish with continued treatment. Prescribers should monitor patients for somnolence and sedation, particularly with concomitant use of other central nervous system depressants. Prescribers should caution patients against engaging in hazardous activities requiring mental alertness, such as operating dangerous machinery or motor vehicles, until the effect of clobazam is known.

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