CLOMIPRAMINE HYDROCHLORIDE- clomipramine hydrochloride capsule
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Suicidality and Antidepressant Drugs
Antidepressants increased the risk compared to placebo of suicidal thinking and behavior (suicidality) in children, adolescents, and young adults in short-term studies of major depressive disorder (MDD) and other psychiatric disorders. Anyone considering the use of clomipramine hydrochloride or any other antidepressant in a child, adolescent, or young adult must balance this risk with the clinical need. Short-term studies did not show an increase in the risk of suicidality with antidepressant compared to placebo in adults beyond age 24; there was a reduction in risk with antidepressants compared to placebo in adults aged 65 and older. Depression and certain other psychiatric disorders are themselves associated with increases in the risk of suicide. Patients of all ages who are started on antidepressant therapy should be monitored appropriately and observed closely for clinical worsening, suicidality , or unusual changes in behavior. Families and caregivers should be advised of the need for close observation and communication with the prescriber. Clomipramine hydrochloride is not approved for use in pediatric patients except for patients with obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD) (see WARNINGS, Clinical Worsening and Suicide Risk; PRECAUTIONS, Information for Patients; and PRECAUTIONS, Pediatric Use).
Clomipramine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP is an antiobsessional drug that belongs to the class (dibenzazepine) of pharmacologic agents known as tricyclic antidepressants. Clomipramine Hydrochloride Capsules, USP is available as capsules of 25, 50, and 75 mg for oral administration.
Clomipramine hydrochloride USP is 3-chloro-5-[3-(dimethylamino) propyl]-10,11-dihydro‑ 5H -dibenz [b,f ] azepine monohydrochloride, and its structural formula is:
Clomipramine hydrochloride, USP is a white to slightly yellow crystalline powder. It is freely soluble in water and methylene chloride; soluble in alcohol.
Inactive Ingredients. D&C Yellow No. 10, FD&C Blue No. 1, (25 mg only), FD&C Red No. 40, (25 mg and 75 mg only), gelatin, magnesium stearate, pregelatinized starch, titanium dioxide.
Clomipramine (CMI) is presumed to influence obsessive and compulsive behaviors through its effects on serotonergic neuronal transmission. The actual neurochemical mechanism is unknown, but CMI’s capacity to inhibit the reuptake of serotonin (5-HT) is thought to be important.
Absorption/Bioavailability – CMI from Clomipramine hydrochloride capsules, USP is as bioavailable as CMI from a solution. The bioavailability of CMI from capsules is not significantly affected by food.
In a dose proportionality study involving multiple CMI doses, steady-state plasma concentrations (Css ) and area-under-plasma-concentration-time curves (AUC) of CMI and CMI’s major active metabolite, desmethylclomipramine (DMI), were not proportional to dose over the ranges evaluated, i.e., between 25 to 100 mg/day and between 25 to 150 mg/day, although Css and AUC are approximately linearly related to dose between 100 to 150 mg/day. The relationship between dose and CMI/DMI concentrations at higher daily doses has not been systematically assessed, but if there is significant dose dependency at doses above 150 mg/day, there is the potential for dramatically higher Css and AUC even for patients dosed within the recommended range. This may pose a potential risk to some patients (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
After a single 50 mg oral dose, maximum plasma concentrations of CMI occur within 2 to 6 hours (mean, 4.7 hr) and range from 56 ng/mL to 154 ng/mL (mean, 92 ng/mL). After multiple daily doses of 150 mg of Clomipramine Hydrochloride, steady-state maximum plasma concentrations range from 94 ng/mL to 339 ng/mL (mean, 218 ng/mL) for CMI and from 134 ng/mL to 532 ng/mL (mean, 274 ng/mL) for DMI. Additional information from a rising dose study of doses up to 250 mg suggests that DMI may exhibit nonlinear pharmacokinetics over the usual dosing range. At a dose of Clomipramine hydrochloride capsules, USP, 200 mg, subjects who had a single blood sample taken approximately 9 to 22 hours, (median 16 hours), after the dose had plasma concentrations of up to 605 ng/mL for CMI, 781 ng/mL for DMI, and 1386 ng/mL for both.
Distribution – CMI distributes into cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and brain and into breast milk. DMI also distributes into CSF, with a mean CSF/plasma ratio of 2.6. The protein binding of CMI is approximately 97%, principally to albumin, and is independent of CMI concentration. The interaction between CMI and other highly protein-bound drugs has not been fully evaluated, but may be important (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions).
Metabolism – CMI is extensively biotransformed to DMI and other metabolites and their glucuronide conjugates. DMI is pharmacologically active, but its effects on OCD behaviors are unknown. These metabolites are excreted in urine and feces, following biliary elimination. After a 25 mg radiolabeled dose of CMI in two subjects, 60% and 51%, respectively, of the dose were recovered in the urine and 32% and 24%, respectively, in feces. In the same study, the combined urinary recoveries of CMI and DMI were only about 0.8% to 1.3% of the dose administered. CMI does not induce drug- metabolizing enzymes, as measured by antipyrine half-life.
Elimination – Evidence that the Css and AUC for CMI and DMI may increase disproportionately with increasing oral doses suggests that the metabolism of CMI and DMI may be capacity limited. This fact must be considered in assessing the estimates of the pharmacokinetic parameters presented below, as these were obtained in individuals exposed to doses of 150 mg. If the pharmacokinetics of CMI and DMI are nonlinear at doses above 150 mg, their elimination half-lives may be considerably lengthened at doses near the upper end of the recommended dosing range (i.e., 200 mg/day to 250 mg/day). Consequently, CMI and DMI may accumulate, and this accumulation may increase the incidence of any dose- or plasma-concentration-dependent adverse reactions, in particular seizures (see WARNINGS).
After a 150 mg dose, the half-life of CMI ranges from 19 hours to 37 hours (mean, 32 hr) and that of DMI ranges from 54 hours to 77 hours (mean, 69 hr). Steady-state levels after multiple dosing are typically reached within 7 to 14 days for CMI. Plasma concentrations of the metabolite exceed the parent drug on multiple dosing. After multiple dosing with 150 mg/day, the accumulation factor for CMI is approximately 2.5 and for DMI is 4.6. Importantly, it may take two weeks or longer to achieve this extent of accumulation at constant dosing because of the relatively long elimination half- lives of CMI and DMI (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION). The effects of hepatic and renal impairment on the disposition of Clomipramine hydrochloride capsules, USP have not been determined.
Interactions – Co-administration of haloperidol with CMI increases plasma concentrations of CMI. Co-administration of CMI with phenobarbital increases plasma concentrations of phenobarbital (see PRECAUTIONS, Drug Interactions). Younger subjects (18 to 40 years of age) tolerated CMI better and had significantly lower steady- state plasma concentrations, compared with subjects over 65 years of age. Children under 15 years of age had significantly lower plasma concentration/dose ratios, compared with adults. Plasma concentrations of CMI were significantly lower in smokers than in nonsmokers.
Clomipramine Hydrochloride capsules, USP is indicated for the treatment of obsessions and compulsions in patients with Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder (OCD). The obsessions or compulsions must cause marked distress, be time-consuming, or significantly interfere with social or occupational functioning, in order to meet the DSM-III-R (circa 1989) diagnosis of OCD.
Obsessions are recurrent, persistent ideas, thoughts, images, or impulses that are egodystonic. Compulsions are repetitive, purposeful, and intentional behaviors performed in response to an obsession or in a stereotyped fashion, and are recognized by the person as excessive or unreasonable.
The effectiveness of Clomipramine hydrochloride capsules, USP for the treatment of OCD was demonstrated in multicenter, placebo-controlled, parallel-group studies, including two 10-week studies in adults and one 8-week study in children and adolescents 10 to 17 years of age. Patients in all studies had moderate-to-severe OCD (DSM-III), with mean baseline ratings on the Yale-Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (YBOCS) ranging from 26 to 28 and a mean baseline rating of 10 on the NIMH Clinical Global Obsessive Compulsive Scale (NIMH-OC). Patients taking CMI experienced a mean reduction of approximately 10 on the YBOCS, representing an average improvement on this scale of 35% to 42% among adults and 37% among children and adolescents. CMI-treated patients experienced a 3.5 unit decrement on the NIMH-OC. Patients on placebo showed no important clinical response on either scale. The maximum dose was 250 mg/day for most adults and 3 mg/kg/day (up to 200 mg) for all children and adolescents.
The effectiveness of Clomipramine hydrochloride capsules, USP for long-term use (i.e., for more than 10 weeks) has not been systematically evaluated in placebo-controlled trials. The physician who elects to use Clomipramine hydrochloride for extended periods should periodically reevaluate the long-term usefulness of the drug for the individual patient (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION).
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