Clonidine Hydrochloride Extended-Release (Page 3 of 7)

6.2 Postmarketing Experience

The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of uncertain size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure. These events exclude those already mentioned in 6.1:

Psychiatric: hallucinations

Cardiovascular: Q-T prolongation

7 DRUG INTERACTIONS

The following have been reported with other oral immediate release formulations of clonidine:

Table 6 Clinically Important Drug Interactions

Concomitant Drug Name or Drug Class

Clinical Rationale

Clinical Recommendation

Tricyclic antidepressants

Increase blood pressure and may counteract clonidine’s hypotensive effects

Monitor blood pressure and adjust as needed

Antihypertensive drugs

Potentiate clonidine’s hypotensive effects

Monitor blood pressure and adjust as needed

CNS depressants

Potentiate sedating effects

Avoid use

Drugs that affect sinus node function or AV node conduction (e.g., digitalis, calcium channel blockers, beta blockers)

Potentiate bradycardia and risk of AV block

Avoid use

8 USE IN SPECIFIC POPULATIONS

8.1 Pregnancy

Pregnancy Category C:

Risk Summary

There are no adequate or well-controlled studies with clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets in pregnant women. In animal embryofetal studies, increased resorptions were seen in rats and mice administered oral clonidine hydrochloride from implantation through organogenesis at 10 and 5 times, respectively, the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD). No embryotoxic or teratogenic effects were seen in rabbits administered oral clonidine hydrochloride during organogenesis at doses up to 3 times the MRHD. Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be used during pregnancy only if the potential benefit justifies the potential risk to the fetus.

Animal Data

Oral administration of clonidine hydrochloride to pregnant rabbits during the period of embryo/fetal organogenesis at doses of up to 80 mcg/kg/day (approximately 3 times the oral maximum recommended daily dose [MRHD] of 0.4 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis) produced no evidence of teratogenic or embryotoxic potential. In pregnant rats, however, doses as low as 15 mcg/kg/day (1/3 the MRHD on a mg/m2 basis) were associated with increased resorptions in a study in which dams were treated continuously from 2 months prior to mating and throughout gestation. Increased resorptions were not associated with treatment at the same or at higher dose levels (up to 3 times the MRHD) when treatment of the dams was restricted to gestation days 6 to 15. Increases in resorptions were observed in both rats and mice at 500 mcg/kg/day (10 and 5 times the MRHD in rats and mice, respectively) or higher when the animals were treated on gestation days 1 to 14; 500 mcg/kg/day was the lowest dose employed in this study.

8.3 Nursing Mothers

Clonidine hydrochloride is present in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed child from clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets or from the underlying maternal condition. Exercise caution when clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are administered to a nursing woman.

8.4 Pediatric Use

The safety and efficacy of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets in the treatment of ADHD have been established in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age. Use of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets in pediatric patients 6 to 17 years of age is supported by a short-term, placebo controlled monotherapy trial, and a short-term adjunctive therapy trial [see CLINICAL STUDIES (14)]. Safety and efficacy in pediatric patients below the age of 6 years has not been established.

Additional pediatric use information for patients ages 6 to 17 years is approved for Concordia Pharmaceuticals, Inc.’s KAPVAY® (clonidine hydrochloride) extended-release tablets. However, due to Concordia Pharmaceuticals Inc.’s marketing exclusivity rights, this drug product is not labeled with that pediatric information.

Juvenile Animal Data

In studies in juvenile rats, clonidine hydrochloride alone or in combination with methylphenidate had an effect on bone growth at clinically relevant doses and produced a slight delay in sexual maturation in males at 3 times the maximum recommended human dose (MRHD) for clonidine and methylphenidate.

In a study where juvenile rats were treated orally with clonidine hydrochloride from day 21 of age to adulthood, a slight delay in onset of preputial separation (delayed sexual maturation) was seen in males treated with 300 mcg/kg/day, which is approximately 3 times the MRHD of 0.4 mg/day on a mg/m2 basis. The no-effect dose was 100 mcg/kg/day, which is approximately equal to the MRHD. There was no drug effects on fertility or on other measures of sexual or neurobehavioral development.

In a study where juvenile rats were treated with clonidine alone (300 mcg/kg/day) or in combination with methylphenidate (10 mg/kg/day in females and 50/30 mg/kg/day in males; the dose was lowered from 50 to 30 mg/kg/day in males due to self-injurious behavior during the first week of treatment) from day 21 of age to adulthood, decreases in bone mineral density and mineral content were observed in males treated with 300 mcg/kg/day clonidine alone and in combination with 50/30 mg/kg/day methylphenidate and a decrease in femur length was observed in males treated with the combination at the end of the treatment period. These doses are approximately 3 times the MRHD of 0.4 mg/day clonidine and 54 mg/day methylphenidate on a mg/m2 basis. All these effects in males were not reversed at the end of a 4-week recovery period. In addition, similar findings were seen in males treated with a lower dose of clonidine (30 mcg/kg/day) in combination with 50 mg/kg/day of methylphenidate and a decrease in femur length was observed in females treated with clonidine alone at the end of the recovery period. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in body weight gain in treated animals during the treatment period but the effect was reversed at the end of the recovery period. A delay in preputial separation (sexual maturation) was observed in males treated with the combination treatment of 300 mcg/kg/day clonidine and 50/30 mg/kg/day methylphenidate. There was no effect on reproduction or sperm analysis in these males.

8.6 Renal Impairment

The impact of renal impairment on the pharmacokinetics of clonidine in children has not been assessed. The initial dosage of clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets should be based on degree of impairment. Monitor patients carefully for hypotension and bradycardia, and titrate to higher doses cautiously. Since only a minimal amount of clonidine is removed during routine hemodialysis, there is no need to give supplemental clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets following dialysis.

9 DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE

9.1 Controlled Substance

Clonidine hydrochloride extended-release tablets are not a controlled substance and have no known potential for abuse or dependence.

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