CLONIDINE TRANSDERMAL SYSTEM- clonidine patch
Actavis Pharma, Inc.
Clonidine Transdermal System, USP is a transdermal system providing continuous systemic delivery of clonidine for 7 days at an approximately constant rate. Clonidine is a centrally acting alpha-agonist hypotensive agent. It is an imidazoline derivative with the chemical name 2, 6-dichloro-N-2-imidazolidinylidenebenzenamine and has the following chemical structure:
Meets USP Drug Release Test 4.
Clonidine Transdermal System, USP is a multi-layered film, 0.2 mm thick, containing clonidine as the active agent. The system areas are 4.1 cm2 (0.1 mg per day for one week), 8.2 cm2 (0.2 mg per day for one week) and 12.3 cm2 (0.3 mg per day for one week) and the amount of drug released is directly proportional to the area (see Release Rate Concept). The composition per unit area is the same for all three doses.
Proceeding from the visible surface towards the surface attached to the skin, there are four consecutive layers: 1) a backing layer of pigmented polyethylene/aluminum/polyester film; 2) a drug reservoir of clonidine, acrylic adhesive; 3) an ethylene vinyl acetate membrane that controls the rate of delivery of clonidine from the system to the skin surface; 4) an adhesive formulation of clonidine and acrylic adhesive. Prior to use, a translucent to clear secondary protective liner card that rests over the pigmented film is removed; also, a protective release liner of silicone coated polyester film that covers the adhesive layer is removed.
Cross Section of the System:
Clonidine transdermal system is programmed to release clonidine at an approximately constant rate for 7 days. The energy for drug release is derived from the concentration gradient existing between a saturated solution of drug in the system and the much lower concentration prevailing in the skin. Clonidine flows in the direction of the lower concentration at a constant rate, limited by the rate-controlling membrane, so long as a saturated solution is maintained in the drug reservoir.
Following system application to intact skin, clonidine in the adhesive layer saturates the skin site below the system. Clonidine from the drug reservoir then begins to flow through the rate-controlling membrane and the adhesive layer of the system into the systemic circulation via the capillaries beneath the skin. Therapeutic plasma clonidine levels are achieved 2 to 3 days after initial application of clonidine transdermal system.
The 4.1, 8.2, and 12.3 cm2 systems deliver 0.1, 0.2, and 0.3 mg of clonidine per day, respectively. To ensure constant release of drug for 7 days, the total drug content of the system is higher than the total amount of drug delivered. Application of a new system to a fresh skin site at weekly intervals continuously maintains therapeutic plasma concentrations of clonidine. If the clonidine transdermal system is removed and not replaced with a new system, therapeutic plasma clonidine levels will persist for about 8 hours and then decline slowly over several days. Over this time period, blood pressure returns gradually to pretreatment levels.
Clonidine stimulates alpha-adrenoreceptors in the brain stem. This action results in reduced sympathetic outflow from the central nervous system and in decreases in peripheral resistance, renal vascular resistance, heart rate, and blood pressure. Renal blood flow and glomerular filtration rate remain essentially unchanged. Normal postural reflexes are intact; therefore, orthostatic symptoms are mild and infrequent.
Acute studies with clonidine hydrochloride in humans have demonstrated a moderate reduction (15% to 20%) of cardiac output in the supine position with no change in the peripheral resistance; at a 45° tilt there is a smaller reduction in cardiac output and a decrease of peripheral resistance.
During long-term therapy, cardiac output tends to return to control values, while peripheral resistance remains decreased. Slowing of the pulse rate has been observed in most patients given clonidine, but the drug does not alter normal hemodynamic responses to exercise.
Tolerance to the antihypertensive effect may develop in some patients, necessitating a reevaluation of therapy.
Other studies in patients have provided evidence of a reduction in plasma renin activity and in the excretion of aldosterone and catecholamines. The exact relationship of these pharmacologic actions to the antihypertensive effect of clonidine has not been fully elucidated.
Clonidine acutely stimulates the release of growth hormone in children as well as adults but does not produce a chronic elevation of growth hormone with long-term use.
Clonidine transdermal system delivers clonidine at an approximately constant rate for 7 days. The absolute bioavailability of clonidine from the transdermal system dosage form is approximately 60%. Steady-state clonidine plasma levels are obtained within 3 days after transdermal application to the upper outer arm and increase linearly with increasing size of the transdermal patch. Mean steady-state plasma concentrations with the 4.1 cm2 , 8.2 cm2 and 12.3 cm2 systems are approximately 0.4 ng/mL, 0.8 ng/mL, and 1.1 ng/mL, respectively. Similar clonidine steady-state concentrations are reached after application to the chest. Steady-state clonidine plasma levels remain constant after removal of one system and application of a new system of the same size.
Following intravenous administration clonidine displays biphasic disposition with a distribution half-life of about 20 minutes and an elimination half-life ranging from 12 to 16 hours. The half-life increases up to 41 hours in patients with severe impairment of renal function. Clonidine has a total clearance of 177 mL/min and a renal clearance of 102 mL/min. The apparent volume of distribution (Vz) of clonidine is 197 L (2.9 L/kg). Clonidine crosses the placental barrier. It has been shown to cross the blood brain barrier in rats.
Following oral administration, about 40% to 60% of the absorbed dose is recovered in the urine as unchanged drug within 24 hours. About 50% of the absorbed dose is metabolized in the liver.
After removal of the clonidine transdermal system, clonidine plasma concentrations decline slowly with a half-life of approximately 20 hours.
Clonidine transdermal system is indicated in the treatment of hypertension. It may be employed alone or concomitantly with other antihypertensive agents.
Clonidine transdermal system should not be used in patients with known hypersensitivity to clonidine or to any other component of the system.
Patients should be instructed not to discontinue therapy without consulting their physician. Sudden cessation of clonidine treatment has, in some cases, resulted in symptoms such as nervousness, agitation, headache, tremor, and confusion accompanied or followed by a rapid rise in blood pressure and elevated catecholamine concentrations in the plasma. The likelihood of such reactions to discontinuation of clonidine therapy appears to be greater after administration of higher doses or continuation of concomitant beta-blocker treatment and special caution is therefore advised in these situations. Rare instances of hypertensive encephalopathy, cerebrovascular accidents and death have been reported after clonidine withdrawal. When discontinuing therapy with clonidine transdermal system, the physician should reduce the dose gradually over 2 to 4 days to avoid withdrawal symptomatology.
An excessive rise in blood pressure following discontinuation of clonidine transdermal system therapy can be reversed by administration of oral clonidine hydrochloride or by intravenous phentolamine. If therapy is to be discontinued in patients receiving a beta-blocker and clonidine concurrently, the beta-blocker should be withdrawn several days before the gradual discontinuation of clonidine transdermal system.
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