CLOPIDOGREL- clopidogrel bisulfate tablet, film coated
The effectiveness of clopidogrel bisulfate is dependent on its activation to an active metabolite by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, principally CYP2C19 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)]. Clopidogrel bisulfate at recommended doses forms less of that metabolite and has a smaller effect on platelet function in patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. Poor metabolizers with acute coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated with clopidogrel bisulfate at recommended doses exhibit higher cardiovascular event rates than do patients with normal CYP2C19 function. Tests are available to identify a patient’s CYP2C19 genotype; these tests can be used as an aid in determining therapeutic strategy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)]. Consider alternative treatment or treatment strategies in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolizers [see Dosage and Administration (2.3)].
- For patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS [unstable angina (UA)/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)], including patients who are to be managed medically and those who are to be managed with coronary revascularization, clopidogrel bisulfate has been shown to decrease the rate of a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke as well as the rate of a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, or refractory ischemia.
- For patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), clopidogrel bisulfate has been shown to reduce the rate of death from any cause and the rate of a combined endpoint of death, re-infarction, or stroke. The benefit for patients who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention is unknown.
The optimal duration of clopidogrel bisulfate therapy in ACS is unknown.
For patients with a history of recent myocardial infarction (MI), recent stroke, or established peripheral arterial disease, clopidogrel bisulfate has been shown to reduce the rate of a combined endpoint of new ischemic stroke (fatal or not), new MI (fatal or not), and other vascular death.
Clopidogrel tablets can be administered with or without food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
- For patients with non-ST-elevation ACS (UA/NSTEMI), initiate clopidogrel tablets with a single 300 mg oral loading dose and then continue at 75 mg once daily. Initiate aspirin (75 to 325 mg once daily) and continue in combination with clopidogrel tablets [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
- For patients with STEMI, the recommended dose of clopidogrel is 75 mg once daily orally, administered in combination with aspirin (75 to 325 mg once daily), with or without thrombolytics. Clopidogrel may be initiated with or without a loading dose [see Clinical Studies (14.1)].
The recommended daily dose of clopidogrel is 75 mg once daily orally, with or without food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].
CYP2C19 poor metabolizer status is associated with diminished antiplatelet response to clopidogrel. Although a higher dose regimen in poor metabolizers increases antiplatelet response [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5)] , an appropriate dose regimen for this patient population has not been established.
Avoid using omeprazole or esomeprazole with clopidogrel. Omeprazole and esomeprazole significantly reduce the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel. When concomitant administration of a PPI is required, consider using another acid-reducing agent with minimal or no CYP2C19 inhibitory effect on the formation of clopidogrel active metabolite [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].
- Clopidogrel Tablets, USP 75 mg are pink, round, biconvex, film coated tablets, engraved “APO” on one side and “CL” over “75″ on the other side.
Clopidogrel bisulfate is contraindicated in patients with active pathological bleeding such as peptic ulcer or intracranial hemorrhage.
Clopidogrel bisulfate is contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to clopidogrel or any component of the product [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is achieved through an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by genetic variations in CYP2C19 [see Boxed Warning] and by concomitant medications that interfere with CYP2C19.
Proton Pump Inhibitors
Avoid concomitant use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole because both significantly reduce the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel [see Drug Interactions (7.1) and Dosage and Administration (2.4)].
Thienopyridines, including clopidogrel bisulfate, increase the risk of bleeding. If a patient is to undergo surgery and an antiplatelet effect is not desired, discontinue clopidogrel bisulfate five days prior to surgery. In patients who stopped therapy more than five days prior to CABG the rates of major bleeding were similar (event rate 4.4% clopidogrel bisulfate + aspirin; 5.3% placebo + aspirin). In patients who remained on therapy within five days of CABG, the major bleeding rate was 9.6% for clopidogrel bisulfate + aspirin, and 6.3% for placebo + aspirin.
Thienopyridines inhibit platelet aggregation for the lifetime of the platelet (7 to 10 days), so withholding a dose will not be useful in managing a bleeding event or the risk of bleeding associated with an invasive procedure. Because the half-life of clopidogrel’s active metabolite is short, it may be possible to restore hemostasis by administering exogenous platelets; however, platelet transfusions within 4 hours of the loading dose or 2 hours of the maintenance dose may be less effective.
Avoid lapses in therapy, and if clopidogrel bisulfate must be temporarily discontinued, restart as soon as possible. Premature discontinuation of clopidogrel bisulfate may increase the risk of cardiovascular events.
In patients with recent TIA or stroke who are at high risk for recurrent ischemic events, the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel bisulfate has not been shown to be more effective than clopidogrel bisulfate alone, but the combination has been shown to increase major bleeding.
TTP, sometimes fatal, has been reported following use of clopidogrel bisulfate, sometimes after a short exposure (<2 weeks). TTP is a serious condition that requires urgent treatment including plasmapheresis (plasma exchange). It is characterized by thrombocytopenia, microangiopathic hemolytic anemia (schistocytes [fragmented RBCs] seen on peripheral smear), neurological findings, renal dysfunction, and fever [see Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
Hypersensitivity including rash, angioedema or hematologic reaction have been reported in patients receiving clopidogrel, including patients with a history of hypersensitivity or hematologic reaction to other thienopyridines [see Contraindications (4.2) and Adverse Reactions (6.2)].
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