Clopidogrel

CLOPIDOGREL — clopidogrel bisulfate tablet, film coated
State of Florida DOH Central Pharmacy

WARNING: DIMINISHED EFFECTIVENESS IN POOR METABOLIZERS

The effectiveness of clopidogrel is dependent on its activation to an active metabolite by the cytochrome P450 (CYP) system, principally CYP2C19 [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1) ]. Clopidogrel at recommended doses forms less of that metabolite and has a smaller effect on platelet function in patients who are CYP2C19 poor metabolizers. Poor metabolizers with acute coronary syndrome or undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention treated with clopidogrel at recommended doses exhibit higher cardiovascular event rates than do patients with normal CYP2C19 function. Tests are available to identify a patient’s CYP2C19 genotype; these tests can be used as an aid in determining therapeutic strategy [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5) ]. Consider alternative treatment or treatment strategies in patients identified as CYP2C19 poor metabolizers [see Dosage and Administration (2.3) ].

1.1 Acute Coronary Syndrome (ACS)

  • For patients with non-ST-segment elevation ACS [unstable angina (UA)/non-ST-elevation myocardial infarction (NSTEMI)], including patients who are to be managed medically and those who are to be managed with coronary revascularization, clopidogrel tablets USP have been shown to decrease the rate of a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction (MI), or stroke as well as the rate of a combined endpoint of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, or refractory ischemia.
  • For patients with ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), clopidogrel tablets USP have been shown to reduce the rate of death from any cause and the rate of a combined endpoint of death, re-infarction, or stroke. The benefit for patients who undergo primary percutaneous coronary intervention is unknown.

The optimal duration of clopidogrel tablet USP therapy in ACS is unknown.

1.2 Recent MI, Recent Stroke, or Established Peripheral Arterial Disease

For patients with a history of recent myocardial infarction (MI), recent stroke, or established peripheral arterial disease, clopidogrel tablets USP have been shown to reduce the rate of a combined endpoint of new ischemic stroke (fatal or not), new MI (fatal or not), and other vascular death.

2.1 Acute Coronary Syndrome

Clopidogrel tablets USP can be administered with or without food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

  • For patients with non-ST-elevation ACS (UA/NSTEMI), initiate clopidogrel tablets USP with a single 300 mg oral loading dose and then continue at 75 mg once daily. Initiate aspirin (75 to 325 mg once daily) and continue in combination with clopidogrel tablets USP [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ].
  • For patients with STEMI, the recommended dose of clopidogrel tablets USP is 75 mg once daily orally, administered in combination with aspirin (75 to 325 mg once daily), with or without thrombolytics. Clopidogrel tablets USP may be initiated with or without a loading dose [see Clinical Studies (14.1) ].

2.2 Recent MI, Recent Stroke, or Established Peripheral Arterial Disease

The recommended daily dose of clopidogrel tablets USP is 75 mg once daily orally, with or without food [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.3) ].

2.3 CYP2C19 Poor Metabolizers

CYP2C19 poor metabolizer status is associated with diminished antiplatelet response to clopidogrel. Although a higher dose regimen in poor metabolizers increases antiplatelet response [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.5) ], an appropriate dose regimen for this patient population has not been established.

2.4 Use With Proton Pump Inhibitors (PPI)

Avoid using omeprazole or esomeprazole with clopidogrel tablets USP. Omeprazole and esomeprazole significantly reduce the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel tablets USP. When concomitant administration of a PPI is required, consider using another acid-reducing agent with minimal or no CYP2C19 inhibitory effect on the formation of clopidogrel active metabolite [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1), Drug Interactions (7.1) and Clinical Pharmacology (12.3)].

3 DOSAGE FORMS AND STRENGTHS

  • 75 mg tablets: Light-pink to pink, film-coated, capsule shaped tablets debossed with “TV” on one side and “7314” on the other side

4.1 Active Bleeding

Clopidogrel is contraindicated in patients with active pathological bleeding such as peptic ulcer or intracranial hemorrhage.

4.2 Hypersensitivity

Clopidogrel tablets are contraindicated in patients with hypersensitivity (e.g., anaphylaxis) to clopidogrel or any component of the product [see Adverse Reactions (6.2) ].

5.1 Diminished Antiplatelet Activity Due to Impaired CYP2C19 Function

Clopidogrel is a prodrug. Inhibition of platelet aggregation by clopidogrel is achieved through an active metabolite. The metabolism of clopidogrel to its active metabolite can be impaired by genetic variations in CYP2C19 [see Boxed Warning ] and by concomitant medications that interfere with CYP2C19.

Proton Pump Inhibitors

Avoid concomitant use of clopidogrel with omeprazole or esomeprazole because both significantly reduce the antiplatelet activity of clopidogrel [see Drug Interactions (7.1) and Dosage and Administration (2.4) ].

5.2 General Risk of Bleeding

Thienopyridines, including clopidogrel, increase the risk of bleeding. If a patient is to undergo surgery and an antiplatelet effect is not desired, discontinue clopidogrel five days prior to surgery. In patients who stopped therapy more than five days prior to CABG the rates of major bleeding were similar (event rate 4.4% clopidogrel + aspirin; 5.3% placebo + aspirin). In patients who remained on therapy within five days of CABG, the major bleeding rate was 9.6% for clopidogrel + aspirin, and 6.3% for placebo + aspirin.

Thienopyridines inhibit platelet aggregation for the lifetime of the platelet (7 to 10 days), so withholding a dose will not be useful in managing a bleeding event or the risk of bleeding associated with an invasive procedure. Because the half-life of clopidogrel’s active metabolite is short, it may be possible to restore hemostasis by administering exogenous platelets; however, platelet transfusions within 4 hours of the loading dose or 2 hours of the maintenance dose may be less effective.

5.3 Discontinuation of Clopidogrel

Avoid lapses in therapy, and if clopidogrel must be temporarily discontinued, restart as soon as possible. Premature discontinuation of clopidogrel may increase the risk of cardiovascular events.

5.4 Patients With Recent Transient Ischemic Attack (TIA) or Stroke

In patients with recent TIA or stroke who are at high risk for recurrent ischemic events, the combination of aspirin and clopidogrel has not been shown to be more effective than clopidogrel alone, but the combination has been shown to increase major bleeding.

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