The following serious adverse reactions are discussed below and elsewhere in the labeling:
• Bleeding [see Warnings and Precautions (5.2)] • Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura [see Warnings and Precautions (5.5)]
Because clinical trials are conducted under widely varying conditions and durations of follow up, adverse reaction rates observed in the clinical trials of a drug cannot be directly compared to rates in the clinical trials of another drug and may not reflect the rates observed in practice.
Clopidogrel has been evaluated for safety in more than 54,000 patients, including over 21,000 patients treated for 1 year or more. The clinically important adverse reactions observed in trials comparing clopidogrel plus aspirin to placebo plus aspirin and trials comparing clopidogrel alone to aspirin alone are discussed below.
In CURE, clopidogrel use with aspirin was associated with an increase in major bleeding (primarily gastrointestinal and at puncture sites) compared to placebo with aspirin (see Table 1). The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage (0.1%) and fatal bleeding (0.2%) were the same in both groups. Other bleeding events that were reported more frequently in the clopidogrel group were epistaxis, hematuria, and bruise.
The overall incidence of bleeding is described in Table 1.
Table 1: CURE Incidence of Bleeding Complications (% patients)
|Event||Clopidogrel(+ aspirin)*(n=6259)||Placebo(+ aspirin)*(n=6303)|
|Major bleeding †||3.7 ‡||2.7 §|
|5 g/dL hemoglobin drop||0.9||0.9|
|Requiring surgical intervention||0.7||0.7|
|Requiring transfusion (≥4 units)||1.2||1.0|
|Other major bleeding||1.6||1.0|
|Intraocular bleeding with significant loss of vision||0.05||0.03|
|Requiring 2-3 units of blood||1.3||0.9|
|Minor bleeding ¶||5.1||2.4|
* Other standard therapies were used as appropriate.
† Life-threatening and other major bleeding.
‡ Major bleeding event rate for clopidogrel + aspirin was dose-dependent on aspirin: <100 mg = 2.6%; 100 to 200 mg = 3.5%; >200 mg = 4.9%
Major bleeding event rates for clopidogrel + aspirin by age were: <65 years = 2.5%, ≥65 to <75 years = 4.1%, ≥75 years = 5.9%
§ Major bleeding event rate for placebo + aspirin was dose-dependent on aspirin: <100 mg = 2.0%;
100 to 200 mg = 2.3%; >200 mg = 4.0%
Major bleeding event rates for placebo + aspirin by age were: <65 years = 2.1%, ≥65 to <75 years =
3.1%, ≥75 years = 3.6%
¶ Led to interruption of study medication
Ninety-two percent (92%) of the patients in the CURE study received heparin or low molecular weight heparin (LMWH), and the rate of bleeding in these patients was similar to the overall results.
In COMMIT, similar rates of major bleeding were observed in the clopidogrel and placebo groups, both of which also received aspirin (see Table 2).Table 2: Incidence of Bleeding Events in COMMIT (% patients)
|Type of bleeding||Clopidogrel (+ aspirin) (n=22961)||Placebo (+ aspirin) (n=22891)||p-value|
|Major* noncerebral or cerebral bleeding**||0.6||0.5||0.59|
|Other noncerebral bleeding (non-major)||3.6||3.1||0.005|
|Any noncerebral bleeding||3.9||3.4||0.004|
* Major bleeds were cerebral bleeds or non-cerebral bleeds thought to have caused death or that required transfusion.
** The relative rate of major noncerebral or cerebral bleeding was independent of age. Event rates for clopidogrel + aspirin by age were: <60 years = 0.3%, ≥60 to <70 years = 0.7%, ≥70 years = 0.8%. Event rates for placebo + aspirin by age were: <60 years = 0.4%, ≥60 to <70 years = 0.6%, ≥70 years = 0.7%.
CAPRIE (Clopidogrel vs. Aspirin)
In CAPRIE, gastrointestinal hemorrhage occurred at a rate of 2.0% in those taking clopidogrel vs. 2.7% in those taking aspirin; bleeding requiring hospitalization occurred in 0.7% and 1.1%, respectively. The incidence of intracranial hemorrhage was 0.4% for clopidogrel compared to 0.5% for aspirin.
Other bleeding events that were reported more frequently in the clopidogrel group were epistaxis and hematoma.
Other Adverse Events
In CURE and CHARISMA, which compared clopidogrel plus aspirin to aspirin alone, there was no difference in the rate of adverse events (other than bleeding) between clopidogrel and placebo.In CAPRIE, which compared clopidogrel to aspirin, pruritus was more frequently reported in those taking clopidogrel. No other difference in the rate of adverse events (other than bleeding) was reported.
The following adverse reactions have been identified during post-approval use of clopidogrel. Because these reactions are reported voluntarily from a population of an unknown size, it is not always possible to reliably estimate their frequency or establish a causal relationship to drug exposure.
• Blood and lymphatic system disorders: Agranulocytosis, aplastic anemia/pancytopenia, thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP), acquired hemophilia A
• Eye disorders: Eye (conjunctival, ocular, retinal) bleeding
• Gastrointestinal disorders: Gastrointestinal and retroperitoneal hemorrhage with fatal outcome, colitis (including ulcerative or lymphocytic colitis), pancreatitis, stomatitis, gastric/duodenal ulcer, diarrhea
• General disorders and administration site condition: Fever, hemorrhage of operative wound
• Hepato-biliary disorders: Acute liver failure, hepatitis (non-infectious), abnormal liver function test
• Immune system disorders: Hypersensitivity reactions, anaphylactoid reactions, serum sickness
• Musculoskeletal, connective tissue and bone disorders: Musculoskeletal bleeding,
myalgia, arthralgia, arthritis
• Nervous system disorders: Taste disorders, fatal intracranial bleeding, headache
• Psychiatric disorders: Confusion, hallucinations
• Respiratory, thoracic and mediastinal disorders: Bronchospasm, interstitial pneumonitis, respiratory tract bleeding, eosinophilic pneumonia
• Renal and urinary disorders: Increased creatinine levels
• Skin and subcutaneous tissue disorders: Maculopapular, erythematous or exfoliative rash, urticaria, bullous dermatitis, eczema, toxic epidermal necrolysis, Stevens-Johnson syndrome, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis (AGEP) , angioedema, drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome, drug rash with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS), erythema multiforme, skin bleeding, lichen planus, generalized pruritus• Vascular disorders: Vasculitis, hypotension
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