CLORAZEPATE DIPOTASSIUM- clorazepate dipotassium tablet
PD-Rx Pharmaceuticals, Inc.
WARNING: RISKS FROM CONCOMITANT USE WITH OPIOIDS; ABUSE, MISUSE, AND ADDICTION; and DEPENDENCE AND WITHDRAWAL REACTIONS
- Concomitant use of benzodiazepines and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate. Limit dosages and durations to the minimum required. Follow patients for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation (see WARNINGS and PRECAUTIONS).
- The use of benzodiazepines, including clorazepate dipotassium, exposes users to risks of abuse, misuse, and addiction, which can lead to overdose or death. Abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines commonly involve concomitant use of other medications, alcohol, and/or illicit substances, which is associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse outcomes. Before prescribing clorazepate dipotassium and throughout out treatment, assess each patient’s risk for abuse, misuse, and addiction (see WARNINGS).
- The continued use of benzodiazepines, including clorazepate dipotassium, may lead to clinically significant physical dependence. The risks of dependence and withdrawal increase with longer treatment duration and higher daily dose. Abrupt discontinuation or rapid dosage reduction of clorazepate dipotassium after continued use may precipitate acute withdrawal reactions, which can be life-threatening. To reduce the risk of withdrawal reactions, use a gradual taper to discontinue clorazepate dipotassium or reduce the dosage (see DOSAGE AND ADMINISTRATION and WARNINGS).
Chemically, clorazepate dipotassium USP is a benzodiazepine. The empirical formula is C 16 H 11 ClK 2 N 2 O 4 ; the molecular weight is 408.92; 1 H -1, 4-Benzodiazepine-3-carboxylic acid, 7-chloro-2,3-dihydro-2-oxo-5-phenyl-, potassium salt compound with potassium hydroxide (1:1) and the structural formula may be represented as follows:
The compound occurs as a fine, light yellow, practically odorless powder. It is insoluble in the common organic solvents, but very soluble in water. Aqueous solutions are unstable, clear, light yellow, and alkaline.
Clorazepate dipotassium tablets USP contain 3.75 mg, 7.5 mg or 15 mg of clorazepate dipotassium USP. In addition, each tablet contains the following inactive ingredients: colloidal silicon dioxide, magnesium oxide heavy, magnesium stearate, microcrystalline cellulose, potassium carbonate anhydrous, potassium chloride, talc and the following coloring agents:
3.75 mg — FD&C Blue No. 2 Lake and FD&C Red No. 40 Lake
7.5 mg — D&C Red No. 6 Barium Lake and D&C Yellow No. 10 Lake
15 mg — D&C Red No. 6 Barium Lake and FD&C Red No. 40 Lake
Pharmacologically, clorazepate dipotassium has the characteristics of the benzodiazepines. It has depressant effects on the central nervous system. The primary metabolite, nordiazepam, quickly appears in the blood stream. The serum half-life is about 2 days. The drug is metabolized in the liver and excreted primarily in the urine.
Studies in healthy men have shown that clorazepate dipotassium has depressant effects on the central nervous system. Prolonged administration of single daily doses as high as 120 mg was without toxic effects. Abrupt cessation of high doses was followed in some patients by nervousness, insomnia, irritability, diarrhea, muscle aches, or memory impairment.
Since orally administered clorazepate dipotassium is rapidly decarboxylated to form nordiazepam, there is essentially no circulating parent drug. Nordiazepam, the primary metabolite, quickly appears in the blood and is eliminated from the plasma with an apparent half-life of about 40 to 50 hours. Plasma levels of nordiazepam increase proportionally with clorazepate dipotassium dose and show moderate accumulation with repeated administration. The protein binding of nordiazepam in plasma is high (97 to 98%).
Within 10 days after oral administration of a 15 mg (50 μCi) dose of 14 C-clorazepate dipotassium to two volunteers, 62 to 67% of the radioactivity was excreted in the urine and 15 to 19% was eliminated in the feces. Both subjects were still excreting measurable amounts of radioactivity in the urine (about 1% of the 14 C-dose) on day ten.
Nordiazepam is further metabolized by hydroxylation. The major urinary metabolite is conjugated oxazepam (3-hydroxynordiazepam), and smaller amounts of conjugated p-hydroxynordiazepam and nordiazepam are also found in the urine.
Clorazepate Dipotassium Indications and Usage
Clorazepate dipotassium is indicated for the management of anxiety disorders or for the short-term relief of the symptoms of anxiety. Anxiety or tension associated with the stress of everyday life usually does not require treatment with an anxiolytic.
Clorazepate dipotassium tablets are indicated as adjunctive therapy in the management of partial seizures.
The effectiveness of clorazepate dipotassium tablets in long-term management of anxiety, that is, more than 4 months, has not been assessed by systematic clinical studies. Long-term studies in epileptic patients, however, have shown continued therapeutic activity. The physician should reassess periodically the usefulness of the drug for the individual patient.
Clorazepate dipotassium tablets are indicated for the symptomatic relief of acute alcohol withdrawal.
Clorazepate dipotassium tablets are contraindicated in patients with a known hypersensitivity to the drug and in those with acute narrow angle glaucoma.
Risks from Concomitant Use with Opioids
Concomitant use of benzodiazepines, including clorazepate dipotassium, and opioids may result in profound sedation, respiratory depression, coma, and death. Because of these risks, reserve concomitant prescribing of these drugs in patients for whom alternative treatment options are inadequate.
Observational studies have demonstrated that concomitant use of opioid analgesics and benzodiazepines increases the risk of drug-related mortality compared to use of opioids alone. If a decision is made to prescribe clorazepate dipotassium concomitantly with opioids, prescribe the lowest effective dosages and minimum durations of concomitant use, and follow patients closely for signs and symptoms of respiratory depression and sedation. In patients already receiving an opioid analgesic, prescribe a lower initial dose of clorazepate dipotassium than indicated in the absence of an opioid and titrate based on clinical response. If an opioid is initiated in a patient already taking clorazepate dipotassium, prescribe a lower initial dose of the opioid and titrate based upon clinical response.
Advise both patients and caregivers about the risks of respiratory depression and sedation when clorazepate dipotassium is used with opioids. Advise patients not to drive or operate heavy machinery until the effects of concomitant use with the opioid have been determined (see PRECAUTIONS: Drug Interactions).
Abuse, Misuse, and Addiction
The use of benzodiazepines, including clorazepate dipotassium, exposes users to the risks of abuse, misuse, and addiction, which can lead to overdose or death. Abuse and misuse of benzodiazepines often (but not always) involve the use of doses greater than the maximum recommended dosage and commonly involve concomitant use of other medications, alcohol, and/or illicit substances, which is associated with an increased frequency of serious adverse outcomes, including respiratory depression, overdose, or death (see DRUG ABUSE AND DEPENDENCE: Abuse).
Before prescribing clorazepate dipotassium and throughout treatment, assess each patient’s risk for abuse, misuse, and addiction (e.g., using a standardized screening tool). Use of clorazepate dipotassium, particularly in patients at elevated risk, necessitates counseling about the risks and proper use of clorazepate dipotassium along with monitoring for signs and symptoms of abuse, misuse, and addiction. Prescribe the lowest effective dosage; avoid or minimize concomitant use of CNS depressants and other substances associated with abuse, misuse, and addiction (e.g., opioid analgesics, stimulants); and advise patients on the proper disposal of unused drug. If a substance use disorder is suspected, evaluate the patient and institute (or refer them for) early treatment, as appropriate.
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