There are no data regarding the excretion of betamethasone dipropionate or clotrimazole into breast milk, the effects on the breastfed infant, or the effects on milk production after topical application to women who are breastfeeding.
It is possible that topical administration of betamethasone dipropionate could result in sufficient systemic absorption to produce detectable quantities in human milk. The developmental and health benefits of breastfeeding should be considered along with the mother’s clinical need for clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream and any potential adverse effects on the breastfed infant from clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream or from the underlying maternal condition.
To minimize potential exposure to the breastfed infant via breast milk, use clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream on the smallest area of skin and for the shortest duration possible while breastfeeding. Advise breastfeeding women not to apply clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream directly to the nipple and areola to avoid direct infant exposure [see Use in Specific Populations (8.4)].
The use of clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream in patients under 17 years of age is not recommended.
Adverse events consistent with corticosteroid use have been observed in pediatric patients treated with clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream. In open-label trials, 17 of 43 (39.5%) evaluable pediatric subjects (aged 12 to 16 years old) using clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream for treatment of tinea pedis demonstrated adrenal suppression as determined by cosyntropin testing. In another open-label trial, 8 of 17 (47.1%) evaluable pediatric subjects (aged 12 to 16 years old) using clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream for treatment of tinea cruris demonstrated adrenal suppression as determined by cosyntropin testing.
Because of a higher ratio of skin surface area to body mass, pediatric patients are at a greater risk than adults of HPA axis suppression when they are treated with topical corticosteroids. They are, therefore also at greater risk of adrenal insufficiency during and/or after withdrawal of treatment. Pediatric patients may be more susceptible than adults to skin atrophy, including striae, when they are treated with topical corticosteroids.
HPA axis suppression, Cushing’s syndrome, linear growth retardation, delayed weight gain, and intracranial hypertension have been reported in pediatric patients receiving topical corticosteroids [see Warnings and Precautions (5.1)].
Avoid use of clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream in the treatment of diaper dermatitis.
Clinical studies of clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream did not include sufficient numbers of subjects aged 65 and over to determine whether they respond differently from younger subjects. However, greater sensitivity of some older individuals cannot be ruled out. The use of clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream under occlusion, such as in diaper dermatitis, is not recommended.
Postmarket adverse event reporting for clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream in patients aged 65 and above includes reports of skin atrophy and rare reports of skin ulceration. Caution should be exercised with the use of these corticosteroid-containing topical products on thinning skin.
Clotrimazole and Betamethasone Dipropionate Cream USP, 1%/0.05% (base), contains combinations of clotrimazole, USP, an azole antifungal, and betamethasone dipropionate, USP, a corticosteroid, for topical use.
Chemically, clotrimazole, USP is 1-(o -Chloro-α,α-diphenylbenzyl)imidazole, with the molecular formula C22 H17 ClN2 , a molecular weight of 344.84, and the following structural formula:
Clotrimazole, USP is an odorless, white crystalline powder, insoluble in water and soluble in ethanol.
Betamethasone dipropionate, USP has 9-Fluoro-11β,17,21-trihydroxy-16β-methylpregna-1,4-diene-3,20-dione 17,21-dipropionate, with the molecular formula C28 H37 FO7 , a molecular weight of 504.59, and the following structural formula:
Betamethasone dipropionate, USP is a white to creamy-white, odorless crystalline powder, insoluble in water.
Each gram of Clotrimazole and Betamethasone Dipropionate Cream USP contains 10 mg clotrimazole, USP and 0.64 mg betamethasone dipropionate, USP (equivalent to 0.5 mg betamethasone), in a white to off-white hydrophilic cream. Inactive ingredients: Ceteareth-30, cetyl alcohol, mineral oil, propylene glycol, purified water, sodium phosphate monobasic monohydrate, stearyl alcohol and white petrolatum; benzyl alcohol as preservative.
Clotrimazole is an azole antifungal [see Clinical Pharmacology (12.4)].
Betamethasone dipropionate is a corticosteroid. Corticosteroids play a role in cellular signaling, immune function, inflammation, and protein regulation; however, the precise mechanism of action for the treatment of tinea pedis, tinea cruris and tinea corporis is unknown.
Studies performed with clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream indicate that these topical combination antifungal/corticosteroids may have vasoconstrictor potencies in a range that is comparable to high-potency topical corticosteroids. However, similar blanching scores do not necessarily imply therapeutic equivalence.
Skin penetration and systemic absorption of clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate following topical application of clotrimazole and betamethasone dipropionate cream has not been studied.
The extent of percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids is determined by many factors, including the vehicle, the integrity of the epidermal barrier, and the use of occlusive dressings. Topical corticosteroids can be absorbed from normal intact skin. Inflammation and/or other disease processes in the skin may increase percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids. Occlusive dressings substantially increase the percutaneous absorption of topical corticosteroids [see Dosage and Administration (2)].
Once absorbed through the skin, the pharmacokinetics of topical corticosteroids are similar to systemically administered corticosteroids. Corticosteroids are bound to plasma proteins in varying degrees. Corticosteroids are metabolized primarily in the liver and are then excreted by the kidneys. Some of the topical corticosteroids and their metabolites are also excreted into the bile.
Mechanism of Action
Clotrimazole, an azole antifungal agent, inhibits 14-α-demethylation of lanosterol in fungi by binding to one of the cytochrome P-450 enzymes. This leads to the accumulation of 14-α-methylsterols and reduced concentrations of ergosterol, a sterol essential for a normal fungal cytoplasmic membrane. The methylsterols may affect the electron transport system, thereby inhibiting growth of fungi.
Activity In Vitro and In Vivo
Clotrimazole has been shown to be active against most strains of the following dermatophytes, both in vitro and in clinical infections, Epidermophyton floccosum, Trichophyton mentagrophytes, and Trichophyton rubrum [see Indications and Usage (1)].
Strains of dermatophytes having a natural resistance to clotrimazole have not been reported. Resistance to azoles, including clotrimazole, has been reported in some Candida species.
No single-step or multiple-step resistance to clotrimazole has developed during successive passages of Trichophyton mentagrophytes.
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